What is neuromuscular training? How do I do it? What makes it different? Neuromuscular training or neural training is training the nervous system rather than the muscular system. Are both still involved? Yes, of course. The muscles are still contracting, load is involved and the neuromuscular system is being stressed. The basic difference is twofold: 1. The volume is in terms of sets over reps and 2. There is speed or extreme load involved in the movement.
Volume in terms of reps over sets
The workout is prescribed as 10 sets of 3 rather than 3 sets of 10. The volume is the same, but the load/speed of the movement is much greater in 10×3 than in 3×10. The greater the load/speed, the greater the neural demand.
Since the reps are so low, the speed and/or the load is going to be very high in terms of neural demand, especially when combined. High speed/load sets are extremely demanding and need increased rest and recovery in order to train for quality.
Rest between sets is generally 2-3 minutes when very high speed/load sets are prescribed. Why? Remember, the ATP-CP energy system takes 3:00 minutes to be 93-97% recovered. Recovery can take 48 – 72 hours in order to be ready to train again above 93% in any given session. Doubt this? Compare your vertical jump or long jump on any given day in order to determine your nervous systems readiness for training. If it is not above 90+% of your best, why attempt to train above 90%?!? You are under recovered or over trained for any given days training session.
Why train neuromuscularly?
Only if you want to train for speed or power. Only if you want to train fast twitch muscle fiber. Only if you want your intermediate muscle fibers to mimic fast twitch muscle fibers. Only if you want to be explosive and have burst. Only if you train for performance. If you just want to work out, never mind.
Workouts are often designed by fitness enthusiasts that are not coaches, do not have training in human performance or are workouts to test you rather than train you for a specific goal. In performance training, there are rep ranges based upon loads that should be followed for performance enhancement of strength, speed and power. If ignored, overtraining often occurs at best, while illness or even injury occurs at worst.
Alexander Prilepin was a coach for the USSR junior national team from 1975-80 and the national team from 1980-85. During his career as an Olympic weightlifting coach he worked with 9 Olympic champions, 3 silver medalists and 7 world champions. In addition to actually getting it done at the highest levels as a coach he revolutionized training. His chart is still widely accepted as the key to training volumes when volumes are related to load.
Prilepin’s Weight Training Chart
Percentage Approximate Optimal Total Training Effect
of 1 Rep Max Number of Reps per Workout
Reps (with range)
95-100 3 – 1 7 (4 – 10)
Max Strength (power if Olympic lift)
85-95 6 – 3 10 (6 – 14)
75 – 85 10 – 6 5 (10 – 20)
Hypertrophy and Endurance
65 – 75 20 – 10 18 (12 – 24)
Explosive Power, Endurance and Hypertrophy
55 – 65 35 – 20 24 (18 – 30)
45 – 55 50+ – 35 100 (50 – 150) Endurance
Great chart for squats, dead lifts, cleans, pulls, etc.
Bench can be a little more volume.
Can you do more volume than is recommended? Sure. Are you then training or working? If you do more than is recommended, what is your reasoning? Remember, volume is the cause of injury, not load! Just because you can does not mean you should!!
Dilemma – You want to work out, but you need to recover. You need to train to feel good about your self but you know you are needing recovery. What to do . . . . ? Do a recovery circuit. Build in stretching, foam rolling, easy cardio creating a circuit that will prepare you for tomorrows session of intense training. What would this look like? Check out the sample below:
10 Kg Plate Squat 10 Reps
Row 2:00 Hard
Foam Roll Glutes 10 Reps 5/5
Glute Ham 10 Reps
Jacobs Ladder 2:00 Fast
Alternate Mountain Climber Medicine Ball Stretch 10 Reps 5/5
Rotational Push Ups 10 Reps 5/5
Airdyne 2:00 Hard
Foam Roll Quads 10 Reps 5/5
Pretzel Stretch 10 Reps 5/5
TRX Incline Pull Ups 10 Reps
Stick Drill for Shoulders 10 Reps 5/5
This type of workout is very beneficial to your body recovering. It is actually better than rest alone!! Next time you need a break, try this workout out and I bet you feel better and train with more quality at your next session.
When an athlete suffers a burner or stinger, it is usually due to the nerve being traumatized in some way. If there is disk involvement in the cervical spine, then this program will not be beneficial and could even be detrimental to the athlete. Make sure that the integrity of the cervical spine is good via communication with the athletic trainer and/or a physician.
The exercises are simple to implement, but it is crucial to err on the side of caution. When this program was first implemented back in the mid- 80’s for college level football athletes, the information we were given from the medical staff was that the damaged nerve only recovers at 2-5 mm per week. In severe cases there was tingling, numbness and weakness to the hand, meaning the athlete could be out several months. The second caution the medical staff advised us to be cognizant of was that the nerve would tire rather quickly. So many exercises were done to the limit of the damaged side with dumbbells that were unequal in weight so that the nerve was allowed to progress in recovery and regeneration. Neural tiredness is characterized by a heavy, tired, dull, dead and/or weak feeling. When this happens it can actually slow or even harm the recovery process of the nerve.
The exercises are as follows:
Manual Neck –
This drill is done four ways emphasizing both the concentric and eccentric resistance range of motion. The anterior version wraps the towel over the forehead and on the chin for grip and for sanitary purposes. The athlete will lie on their back and concentrically go from almost full extension to almost full flexion with resistance. Then the partner will provide the force to eccentrically push the head back to almost full extension. Do not get to full extension as this may trigger the nerve and cause the burner/stinger symptoms again.
The prone version requires the athlete to roll over onto their stomach. The towel is placed upon their posterior skull and the athlete will go from almost full flexion with resistance to almost full extension. The partner will again provide resistance for the eccentric portion of the range of motion. Again, the purpose behind going from almost full extension to almost full flexion is that no additional stinger event will be caused by the exercise program, as this would set the recovery process back.
Lateral is accomplished by having the athlete sit upright at the end of a bench and grab the front of the bench so there is no lateral flexion of the upper body. The towel goes over the head and the resistor places one hand on the outside of the head and the other will support the outside of the opposite shoulder. The athlete will attempt to go from ear on the shoulder to ear on the shoulder with concentric and eccentric resistance just as in the anterior and posterior versions of the exercise.
Shrug Series –
There are four versions of shrugs that are incorporated into the burner/stinger program. The first is the overhead shrug. This is not a strength exercise as much as a motor learning exercise. In contact sports the upper shoulder complex must brace and support the neck upon contact. This is accomplished by elevation or “bowing the neck” and many athletes are unable to do this movement with the arms in an overhead, extended position. Holding a bar overhead in a fully extended, locked out snatch grip, have the athlete attempt to press the bar using shoulder elevation. As the athlete does this, the spotter should place each of his index fingers on either side of the neck under the ears. The athlete should attempt to pinch the spotter’s fingers between the traps and neck muscles. The load is a bar only. Full ROM is important, especially at the top end or fully contracted part of the movement.
The second shrug to learn is the hang shrug. This shrug is done from the hang clean position with dumbbells in order to force the athlete to shrug up and back to increase the strength of the upper and mid trap in order to support the elevation/bowing action. This is also a motor learning drill that once learned, can be moderately loaded. Full ROM is important, especially at the top end or fully contracted part of the movement.
The next version is the bent over shrug. Just as the name implies, the athlete is bent over so that the back is parallel to the ground and the dumbbells are hanging from the shoulders in the hands. Varying of the grips by rotating the dumbbells will challenge the motor learning part of the exercise. Emphasis should be put on contracting the traps/shoulder blades down and back for full contraction. This drill can be moderately loaded. Full ROM is important, especially at the top end or fully contracted part of the movement. The dumbbells will go from the hang position in front of the thigh to the outer hip, almost to the back pocket.
The final version is the upright row, again with dumbbells in order to allow each side to be appropriately challenged without over stimulus of the nervous system. This version can be loaded the most in relation to the other drills. The spotter technique of placing the fingers on the traps is again recommended here so that full ROM contraction of the traps is accomplished.
Recommended Training Program –
The sets and reps are determined by the ability of the athlete and the traumatized nerve(s) to withstand the level of stimulus with out being over trained. Manual neck sets and reps are 1 set of 8-10 reps. As the athlete progresses, this becomes a max effort drill in which the athlete can only do 10 reps each direction. For each of the shrugs, begin with 1 set of 8-10 reps. As the athlete becomes accustomed to the training prescription, the volume can be progressed up to 3 sets of 8-10 reps. Remember that quality is much more important than quantity as the rehabilitation program progresses.
In injury prevention programs, emphasize ROM, optimal patterning and quality movements. The loads can be moderately heavy as long as full ROM is performed. Prescriptions can be 3 x 8-10 down to 4 x 5-6 or even 10-8-6-4.
Dr. Greg Rose stated in one of his great lectures for the Perform Better team that motor learning (i.e. muscle memory) is never erased. One pattern can be overlaid upon another, but our basic motor patterns are archived and remain with us for our lives. For example, piano lessons when we are young and our nervous system is so plastic stay with us. Same with the ability to ride a bike, learn multiple languages fluently and form certain sounds with our mouths (think of accents from people that learn a second language well into adulthood and have trouble with some sounds).
Why is this point important? In many instances from sport to law enforcement to Special Forces novices are put in situations in which extreme stress is a part of the test in order to determine the motor pattern that will emerge under times of such duress. A current popular example is Tim Tebow’s throwing motion. When in a closed drill in which the outcome is set, the motion improves. When the drill is open, such as in competition, the throwing pattern reverts to the earlier learned pattern typical of a baseball windup.
Many Special Forces and military selection courses include high levels of stress in which the candidate is deprived of sleep, food and given tasks that are extremely difficult and in some instances even impossible to accomplish. Why? To determine if the candidate can function at a high level in times of extreme discomfort; to determine what muscle memory patterns will emerge and finally, to get a glimpse into the will power of the individual candidate.
What does this have to do with sports teams? It is becoming more and more difficult to put high school and collegiate athletes under duress in order to determine how they will respond in terms of will power, motor patterns and ability to function. The high school coach in many instances is not backed up by his administration if even one parent complains. In college, the NCAA has mainstreamed the athlete into the student-athlete collegiate experience to such an extent that in the summer, when school is paid for, the athlete does not even have to workout one time, while all expenses, room and board are paid for during the summer semester. Many coaches do not support making athletes uncomfortable since they end up in their offices complaining.
It is imperative our young people are put in situations of distress that are planned, well thought out and have a purpose in order to create young people with confidence, competence and will power in order to face the challenges of adulthood.
The last winter ball in football I participated in had 9 stations with a goal of 7-8 reps at each station. This created a load of 63-72 reps in less than 35 minutes. This workload mimicked a football game in 1/6th of the time. When warm up and cool down was included as well as penalty runs, this was a 60 – 65 minute workout. This was done 3 – 4 times per week and the athletes had to come back in the afternoon and lift weights 3 – 4 times as well. The lifting was not as difficult as the focusing and commitment to doing it right, doing it hard and doing it with a positive mental attitude. This was done to create toughness in the eyes of the coaches, but I now know it creates hard motor patterns that are difficult to peel back.
During the 2013 spring game at Ohio State University, Urban Meyer stood just behind and over from the holder on each and every field goal attempt. Why – To put pressure on the new kickers of course. What happens when the kicker feels the pressure? He reverts back to his worst pattern, which may result in a miss, much like when he is iced before the big kick to win the big game.
What is our lowest level of motor pattern? The fetal position. When there is too much stress for our ability to cope, too much stress for our level of training, too much stress for our experience level, too much stress for our mind to comprehend, we will revert to the fetal position. Remember the culmination of the final battle scene in “Saving Private Ryan”? Why did Steven Spielberg Show Matt Damon in his foxhole screaming? What position is he in. . . . . ?
Making it tough in a well thought out progression that is appropriate for the age group, the ability level and culture of the team/individual will go a long way toward preparing a team, group and individual for the trials and tribulations of the future.
Credit to co-worker Logan Brodine for the 6-8-10 Push up. This is just push-ups but with weight placed on your back in the form of plates. Put two plates on your back and do 6 push-ups. Remove one plate and keep going for 8 more push ups. Remove the last plate and do 10 more push-ups. Now, for the variations. Put the heavy plate on top of the lighter one, for example to make it easier. To make it more difficult, put the light plate on top of the heavier one. Maintain good push up form throughout the movement. Excellent drill to do followed by the medicine ball partner bench press for power and fast twitch muscle fiber training.
Many people interchange the usage of the RDL and the SLDL. Is this accurate? In a word, no. Let’s examine the lifts and their heritage. The RDL comes from Russia or Romania (depending on who you ask what the R stands for) and the SLDL comes from the bodybuilding world.
The RDL is meant to simulate the top of the second pull in the clean and the snatch. The RDL is a heavy version of the kettlebell swing. The RDL SHOULD be executed down to the top of the knees with a moderate tempo and up with a quick, explosive movement, much like the kettlebell swing. The feet stay on the ground as the hips drive the bar up to the high pocket position. Remember, it is a partial movement lift prescribed to assist the second pull in the clean and snatch.
The SLDL is designed to load the glutes and hams throughout the entire ROM of the backside chain. The knees MUST be UNLOCKED in order to load the muscles and tendons and NOT the ligaments and discs. Executed from the ground or on a small box depending on the flexibility of the hamstrings. Proper form is to shift the weight back loading the heels while hinging at the hip. The lumbar spine should NOT flex, the core should stay braced throughout the entire movement. The grip should be shoulder width and the tempo should be controlled.
So, in essence, the two lifts come from different heritages and are designed for two different reasons, impacting vastly different neural patterns. While using the same musculature, the ROM, loads and tempo of movement should be very different in execution.
If you want a nice butt and hams, do both lifts. If you want a bigger, faster, better clean or snatch, focus on the RDL.
NO NO NO – Legs too straight!! Single leg version of the SLDL Traditional Version of the SLDL