strength

How Do I Estimate My MAX?

One of the most accurate ways to estimate your max at any given time is to do indicator sets. An indicator set is a heavy load where you will do 2 – 5 reps and cannot do another. The reason you do less than 6 is at six reps, due to time under tension, the energy systems begin to switch from ATP-PC to the lactate system and the variability is greater.

After you do your heavy indicator set for as many as possible for 2 – 5 reps, just use some simple math. Take the total number of reps and subtract one. Multiply what is left by 3%. Then multiply this number by the load used in the heavy indicator set. Add this number back to the load used in the set. For example:

5 reps at 225
5 – 1 = 4
4 x 3% = 12%
.12 x 225 = 27

27 = 225 = 252

So – the estimated max in this case would be 252 or 250 – 255

This works very well and can give you an idea of where you are in your strength development during training without having to prepare to max or max.

What if I want to know what my max is on a lift in which I do not max? This is quite common, as many lifts are not tested, but an athlete wants to cycle this lift. Here are the percentages for a couple of lifts to train percentages off of without having to max on those lifts.

Incline is 80% of bench press

Snatch is 70% of the Clean

Squat is 80% of the Dead Lift

These are excellent rules of thumb to use in order to train with percentages without having to test several different lifts.

Robb Rogers

How do I get bigger, denser muscles?

How Do I Get BIGGER??

Volume and nutritional timing are the keys to size. More reps and the muscle will get bigger. 10 sets of 3 and 3 sets of ten are both a total volume of 30 reps. However, the time under tension of the muscle for 3’s is usually under 10 seconds, so all the energy needed to complete the set is already stored in the muscle cells. When doing sets of 10 (or any set that takes longer than 10 seconds to complete) the energy needed to complete that set must be recruited from outside the muscle cell and stimulates the muscle cell to store more sugar and water for work. This results in a corresponding increase in the cell and the overall muscle.

If carbohydrate and protein are provided within 2 hours of completing training (within first 30 minutes is optimal) then the sugar and protein are present for replenishing the muscle energy substrates and the muscle will “grow” at an optimal rate.

Total volume will stimulate the muscle to grow. Time under tension will stimulate the muscle to grow. Providing liquid carbohydrate and protein within 30 minutes of completion of the workout will optimize the muscle recovery and growth potential.

For more dense muscles, increasing time under tension by going heavy or doing pauses and holds at a moderate load will increase the density of the muscle tension as well as the strength of the connective tissue such as the tendon. Holds and pauses can be done at various joint angles and for various lengths of time up to a full 10 seconds.

Maxing on the Pull – Up

Marine doing pull ups

Many programs do not max on the pull – up or any type of pulling exercise other than the clean dead lift. However, if the shoulder is not developed fully and equally, then the front side musculature tends to dominate and anterior dislocations and/or posterior labrum injuries can occur. Maxing on the pull – up can be somewhat controversial as is the athlete allowed to kip and if so, how much? Are they required to pause at the bottom? Is the grip over or under hand? How wide is the grip? In my experience, the grip is overhand and slightly wider than shoulder grip or analogous to the bench press grip. Now, for the key concept that makes the pull – up work as a part of the max testing battery for the athlete.

Just as in estimating a max in any lift, the formula will apply. The formula is as follows:

Max reps – 1 (multiplied by .03) = X. Then, (X is multiplied by the body weight of the athlete + any additional load such as a weight vest or plates hung off of a belt) = Y. Y is the amount of load represented by each rep above one executed by the athlete. Y is then added back to the body weight of the athlete.

For example:

A 200 pound athlete does 4 reps in the pull – up test. 4 – 3 = 3. 3 x .03 = 9%. .09 x 200 equals 18. 200 + 18 equals 218. Round up and the max is 220.

 

This max should be near the bench press max. If it is more than 10% off, then more emphasis should be placed on the pulling exercises.

Keeping SWAT officers fit to serve

by Andy Koen

(This was done when I was at the NSCA – When I was still a member and a proponent of that organization . . . Robb)

Prepping for a stress shoot

If carrying 70 pounds of body armor and tactical gear wasn’t physically strenuous enough, then the stress and adrenaline that flood the bodies of SWAT team officers while working a volatile crime scene can be downright exhausting. That is why members of the Colorado Springs Police Department’s Tactical Enforcement Unit (SWAT) rely on Coach Rogers and staff at the National Strength and Conditioning Association to keep them at their peak physically and mentally.

During the past four years, the NSCA and the CSPD have blazed a cooperative trail in developing a series of specialized workouts just for the SWAT Team. It’s called functional fitness. Crouched in a firing stance, the officers cross the gym floor carrying 25 pound weights in place of an assault rifle while their partners use resistance bands to pull against them.
Coach Robb Rogers says this is just one of multiple exercises used to strengthen the muscle groups the officers rely on most to keep them healthy and safe in the field. “Core strength and stability becomes critically important with this type of athlete.”

Commander Thor Eels first initiated the partnership when the police department began looking for ways to improve their physical fitness testing program for selecting SWAT officers. One of the earliest benefits of the program has been the drop in work related injuries. However, Eels says the biggest benefit has been the improved ability of his officers to remain calm under pressure. High stress situations can easily force a fight or flight reflex that can cloud a person’s judgment. “A SWAT officer in a hostage rescue scenario only gets one chance to get it right, and they have to make the right decision,” Eels said. “I wanted them to be operating at the highest physical level possible to make good decisions.”
The training regiment has become a benchmark for fitness training within the law enforcement community around the country. Coach Rogers alsoStability ball wrestling prior to shoot consults with the California Peace Officers Standards and Training Commission to restructure the training manual and exercise protocols and procedures implemented at all Police Academy’s in the state of California. Robb also uses similar exercises to create a specialized training regiment for Special Forces soldiers from Fort Carson.

Two for One Strength/Core Training

Bench, Squat & Dead Lift, Again?

Most novice lifters train from a canned program which usually consists of bilateral lifts using two arms and/or two legs. These exercises traditionally are presses, pulls, squats and occasionally bendovers. The compensation pattern for these lifts are to move the core forward or backward as the load increases or fatigue begins to set in. Most people are more challenged in terms of core strength and stability in the lateral plane, let alone the challenges of diagonal/rotational motion. In order to increase the core challenge on one side or through one hip to the same side or opposite side shoulder, consider adding single arm and/or single leg training.

 

 

 

Single Arm Presses
Single arm presses will make the core stabilize in order to prevent rolling off of the bench when doing decline, bench or incline.

1 Arm Incline

When doing single arm overhead presses, the stance should be with one foot elevated onto a short box. This will unload the hip compensation pattern front to back and load the hip side to side compensation pattern. If the pressing arm is on the straight leg side, the load will seem heavier. On the bent or elevated leg side, the load will seem lighter as the hip will shift underneath the pressing shoulder. Most of the core training will take place above the hip when using a bench for support. Standing as in the shoulder press or when using a cable trainer or tubing for incline, the bench pressing pattern will engage the glutes and depending on the stance, other parts of the hip and core musculature. The decline will place more front side core load than normal single arm pressing while in a standing stance.

 

Single Arm Pulls

1 arm band row

Single arm pulls will also add to core training while training the back and shoulder musculature. When standing the entire posterior core from the hamstrings, glutes, QL and erectors will definitely be involved to provide stability as the pulling motion is engaged. The stance (parallel, diagonal, linear) will influence the amount of stress through the posterior core as will the angle of the elbow in relation to the floor. The wide elbow, abducted away from the body will cause relatively greater stress through the core as the resistance is farther from the midline. An elbow near the body will feel stronger on each rep as the resistance is near to the midline. The linear stance will be easiest to execute one arm pulls from as it is in line with the line of stress. The parallel stance will be perpendicular to the line of stress and will cause a feeling of greater stress through the body.

seated 1 arm rows

When seated and doing one arm pulls as in a lat pull or low row, most of the core stress will be above the hip. To counteractthis, a small ball can be placed between the knees and squeezed to engage the inner sling adductors and low abs or an ankle band can be put around the knees and pushed out in order to stress the outer sling. I personally prefer training the inner sling with this exercise for most of my people. The opposite arm should punch forward as the pulling arm pulls back and the posture should be emphasized with a big chest attitude.

 

Single Leg Squats

Pitcher Squat

The single leg squat is excellent for training the legs while not stressing the back. If the single leg squat is prescribed as a split squat with the rear leg elevated rather than as a pistol type squat, the balance is better and the core training can be pretty intense. In order to elevate the core involvement, I will assign a weight held in front, much like a steering wheel. This will make the front side core engage. If I want to stress the lateral core, I will assign a weight held in one hand at shoulder height on the opposite side of the leg squatting, as if preparing to do a shoulder press. This will create resistance above the hip on the opposite side forcing the hip, core and shoulder to stabilize against the forces. The front foot of the squatting leg should be turned in slightly in order to add more balance and the back knee should almost touch the ground, enhancing thigh separation needed for acceleration and sprinting. In addition, with the weight held in front, the resistance can be pressed to the right or left by a partner which will add rotational stress through the core.

1 Leg Sit Back Squat

The single leg sit back squat is executed just like a normal sit back box squat, the difference being the stance is very narrow and the opposite leg is extended in front to create a counter balance. The weight resistance is loaded in front in the hands or in the case of extremely strong athletes, the addition of a weight vest. Additional stress can be added by pressing right and left on the weight held at arms length, thereby adding rotational stress as in the split/pitcher squat. The addition of a partner will create vertical resistance as well as rotary resistance to the person doing the exercise which, at the hip, knee and ankle will cause the lower limb system to stabilize against this rotational resistance and familiarize the nervous system with this type of feedback. Rotational stress at the hip, knee and ankle is a prime cause of injury when coupled with a loss of stability in this system.

 

Step – ups

1 Arm Step Up Press

Step – ups are an excellent exercise to add opposite arm, diagonal core stress through the body in order to foster strength and stability on single leg movements such as running, walking, hopping, bounding and jogging. The weight will be held at shoulder height and at the conclusion of a short (4 – 8 inch), medium (12 – 16 inch) or tall (above 16 inches) step up, the weight will be pressed or just held at the shoulder pressing position. The hip is not allowed to “drop” upon the step down portion of the movement and is encouraged to drive through the shoulder in order to execute the step up and press portion of the pattern. Most people just limit their training to linear step ups.  Lateral step ups and crossover step ups will enhance hip and ankle mobility and help to spare the knees and low back.

 

Single Leg Bendovers
Single leg bendovers are one leg good mornings, one leg RDL’s or one leg stiff legged dead lifts. No matter the range of motion,

1 Leg Good Morning

the knee is flexed to some degree, the load is in the hand(s)s or on the shoulders and the hip is pushed back with a hinge motion in order to foster the hip hinge action, braced core, pillar posture that is a key to low back health. Single leg bendovers (as opposed to double leg bendovers) are usually much more stressful to the inside hamstring adductor area (especially when lifting the swing leg up for thigh separation) and much more challenging to the balance and stability system. If the weight is in the opposite hand and the swing leg is moved out in order to move the weighted hand inside the support foot the rotational stability and strength required is very demanding, even with very light loads. Posture is paramount. The back should be flat, the abs braced and the pillar core maintained throughout the movement. The foundational movement pattern of the bendover should have been mastered prior to assigning this exercise. If the swing leg is rotated the other way and the hand(s) go outside the support foot, this move is similar to the follow through on a throw and is slightly easier to accomplish.

 

Adding some single leg and single arm training to your workouts will accomplish many things. It will add core stress, lower loads, are safer, creates a greater neural load, will increase balance/stability and are more functional, more akin to the normal movement patterns of the body in normal life skills as well as sport skills. Try it – you just might like it!

 

Getting Stronger is as Easy as 1, 2, 3 Days Per Week

"It'sh Shimple"

Many people like to resistance train 3 days per week as a part of their lifestyle training program. I believe that 3 days per week of resistance training done in the giant set or circuit style training program which will keep your heart rate up while you are training for strength, thus accomplishing two things at once. If the Giant Set philosophy is utilized, where a push, pull, leg and sometimes core and/or total body exercise are added to the training session, strength and power can be emphasized at the same time fitness is being improved. The key is how to periodize the strength training program when not using percentages of your max.

When resistance training (using bodyweight, DB’s, KB’s, bars, etc.) and not using a one rep max to figure the percentages OR with a mixed group showing up to train that are at a variety of strength and fitness levels this system is relatively easy to implement. It does not utilize a set time per set, rather it uses the fitness of the athlete to determine the pace and tempo of the circuit. The fitness level, exercises and loads will determine the pace of the circuit for each individual. Next, the ingenious part of the formula for maximizing the strength gains for each individual without spending hours on programming.
Each day will have an emphasis based on the exercises selected and instructions imparted to the group. The heavy day will use big muscle group, heavy lift type exercises such as squat or dead lift (basically the same lift), bar bench press, pull – ups, for example. The rep scheme will be moderate such as 4-6 reps, a pyramid (8-6-4-2-4-6-8), work up/work out sets (10-8-6-4 5×5), etc. The loads will be determined by the individual as they move from the squat/deadlift to the bench to pull-ups (usually done with rubber band assistance for the weaker people and with added load or pauses on the way up and way down by the stronger people). This is the heavy day of training.

The medium day utilizes medium loads, but the time under tension for the muscle will go up. The athlete will control the tempo of the lift by pausing/holding half way up and halfway down on the movement as well as at the top/bottom of the lift. The load is medium, so posture, form and quality of the pattern should not be an issue but as always is critical. For example, the pause/hold workout will be written 3 hold bench press 5 x 5 – 4 second hold. In this workout the athlete would lower the bar halfway, hold for 4 seconds, lower to the chest, holding for 4 seconds, come ½ way up and hold for 4 seconds and then finish the rep. This will make the time under tension for each rep 12 seconds, much longer than most 1 rep max attempts. As the reps go up as in 4 x 8 hold for 3 seconds, the hold/pause time will go down. As the rep scheme prescribed goes down, the hold time will go up as in 8 x 4 hold for 6 seconds. This will also control the load the athlete puts on the bar. These giant set circuits will also be controlled by the athlete and their choice of loads. If the load is too heavy and/or the form is compromised, then the athlete will lag beyond the group and have trouble finishing.

Rubber Band Assisted Pull - ups

The light day will utilize much different implements for resistance. However, the pattern and angle of the exercise will remain essentially the same. The bench press would become medicine ball bench (where the athlete will lay on their back with their legs bent and as a partner drops the ball to their chest, the athlete will catch the ball, bring it to their chest and punch it up to the ceiling), clap push-ups (done on their knees if they are not strong), tubing punches from a standing position, etc. Air squats or squat jumps will replace back squats or the dead lift and tubing pulls for speed will replace the pull-up. The pattern of movement is the same, but the stimulus will be quite different. This is the day the timer is used and the work bout is controlled by the instructor/coach. The work bouts should be no more than 20 seconds with up to 60 seconds to recover. Why such heresy? They won’t get fit you say? This is not about fitness by the work bout, it is about quality of the work bout and can the athlete recover in the time allotted to have great quality in the next work bout. As time progresses, the work bout remains 10-20 seconds and the rest can be squeezed down to 40, 30 and for short sets, even 20 seconds.
Why do such training for “normal” clients?? I believe we can all agree fast twitch fibers have been proven to respond quicker to hypertrophy training and are designed to contract quickly and with high force for short bursts of time. Slow twitch fibers respond poorly to hypertrophy training and contract with relatively low force for long periods of time. Intermediate fibers can mimic either fast or slow twitch fibers, correct? Now, just based on looks alone, which type of fibers will make you look better – slow twitch or fast twitch? Do you want to look like a muscled up, cut up sprinter or a smooth, skinny long distance athlete? Easy answer – muscled up, cut up for any of our people, whether they are athletes or soccer moms. So, if we always train at the same speed, using relatively the same loads, the fast twitch fibers never get stressed and the intermediate twitch fibers will begin to take on the characteristics of the slow twitch fibers. So, the programming, over time, will create fit people that can work for 30 – 60 seconds at a time that have fewer and fewer fast twitch acting fibers to call upon in training, performance and life.

So, to summarize, have a heavy, slow big lift day; implement a medium load day with extended pauses and holds; and have a fast explosive day with light, fast explosive exercises and reps done for short burst intervals (think Tabata style training, but with breaks if needed for fitness levels) and the emphasis is on quality, quality and quality!!
After just a month of this change in quality and emphasis of training, you will find your muscles thicker and dense (thanks to the holds and explosive reps) and your fitness and strength levels breaking through to new plateaus due to the giant sets increasing the tempo of the workout and training all the muscle fibers!!
Remember . . .

How The Fitness Industry Has Changed Over My 30 Years

The Walkman

In the 80’s, when I began my career as a collegiate strength and conditioning coach, the field was new to college and on the private side powerlifting, bodybuilding, jogging and aerobics ruled the world. Strength training technique in the weight room was everything. Outfits, shoes and beats per minute were the keys to jogging and aerobics. The legends were in their prime in power lifting and bodybuilding. Amazing as it sounds, people worked out without personal music and ran without any music at all back in the “olden” days. The Walkman was just beginning to be the thing for personalized music on the move. As the 80’s evolved, the National Strength Coaches Association was growing from its inception (1979), created a certification and began to court the non-strength coach, thus evolving into the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Several other organizations began to pop up to serve the private side of the industry that was based on memberships and fitness rather than performance and winning. However, everyone still seemed to be focused on the technical aspects of what to do and how to actually do it properly. In performance, the big argument was powerlifting, bodybuilding and Olympic lifting versus Nautilus H.I.T. (High Intensity Training) or one set to failure that was the training style at various universities, most notably Michigan and Penn State. The inference was since Michigan and Penn State were good, H.I.T. had to be good, regardless of the fact that H.I.T. was a style of training unique to the United States. The NSCA decided to wage a scientific battle against the “HIT” philosophy and ran the coaches at the “HIT” programs out of the organization.

Steroids were a part of the sports culture of the 80’s. Some football athletes dabbled in them or used them at one time or another. Were they isolated to football athletes or running rampant in colleges? In my opinion and experience, no. However, they were being used by some and a very few collegiate coaches were even jailed or sent to prison for possession or allowing their distribution.

1sourcenutrition.com

Toward the end of the 80’s and early 90’s, the importance of nutrition and speed began to become apparent in performance. The winning teams in football (most notably the University of Washington at the turn of the decade and Miami University throughout the 90’s) were extremely focused on recruiting speed and Nebraska had retained a nutritionist on staff to assist the dining hall in refueling the players at meals as well as creating a refueling station in the weight room for immediate pre- and post-workout protein and carbohydrate ingestion. The better the nutritional support, the faster the athletes recovered. The faster the athlete recovered, the more quality work they could do which in turn led to better quality performances and fewer injuries. Many performance-enhancing drugs lead to better quality recovery and are not for the performance itself. The private side of the industry was beginning to realize that gyms that were franchised (Gold’s, Bally’s, etc.) were opportunities to sell memberships and make lots of money. A few privately owned gyms were beginning to realize the opportunity that existed with the death of Physical Education in the school systems, but the concept of performance training for hire had yet to make it into the mainstream of our culture or the private side of the industry. Certifications for strength coaches and fitness professionals began with the introduction of a certification by the NSCA. A written test without a practical test (the NATA had both written and practical), it was designed by P.hD.’s and some coaches that had some weight room knowledge, but was rapidly changed by P.hD.’s that had less and less actual coaching and fitness training knowledge. However, as it was first and the NSCA had the money to get it accredited, it became the gold standard.

Periodization become huge with the introduction to the industry of computer programming that can control exercise selection, sets, reps, rest time and even rep execution time. Periodization became the buzzword as it came out of the former USSR, which had great success in the training and competition of their athletes. The USSR also had complete control of their athletes 24/7 and a cutting edge drug program. They selected for talent, trained the selected athletes and those that survived were national, world and Olympic champions. With the fall of the wall and the collapse of their system, several of their coaches and sports scientists came to our country and Canada and began to teach and write. This information enlightened performance coaches that with great quality of repetition execution and additional volume over time, the athletes could indeed get bigger, faster, quicker and stronger. However, the problem with true periodization as espoused was that in our system, we do not have control, only influence over the athlete and drugs are outlawed and tested for by the NCAA, USOC, etc. In the private industry, there is even less influence so the ability to sequence and order the exercises on any given day in order to create a training effect become paramount to the training process.

The 90’s saw the advance of the association focused on servicing the needs of the members of the fitness, private performance and rehab/reconditioning industry. The medical trainers had the National Athletic Trainers Association, which with the backing of the team physicians had tremendous influence with the National Collegiate Athletic Association. The collegiate strength coaches were now beginning to feel the pressure that could be exerted when they had no voice and no one to support them. By now, virtually every pro team and university had at least one strength coach. 70-80 hour weeks were the norm and the coaches were not only in the weight room but out on the track, field and court teaching speed development, plyometrics, agility and conditioning for a variety of sports in addition to football.

The National Academy of Sports Medicine became an organization focused on the health and well being of the individual for

Certification for $

movement as well as performance. The NASM created education based on injury prevention for coaches and trainers that came from the world of physical therapists rather than from the world of sports and its coaches. The collegiate strength coaches were fed up with being used by the NSCA and broke off to found the Collegiate Strength and Conditioning Coaches Association – the CSCCA, which was later changed to the CSCCa due to pressure from the NSCA of the threat of a lawsuit for name infringement. Since the CSCCa had little in terms of resources, they changed the big A to a little a. This action by the NSCA was followed in the early 2000’s by a lawsuit to force the separate NSCA certification agency to come under the wing of the NSCA, effectively ending the NSCA’s presence in Lincoln, NE after almost 30 years. IHRSA, IDEA, ACE and other organizations began to support the private side business owner and trainer, thus diluting the field and creating a myriad of certifications, many of which became accredited by the 2000’s when the accrediting agencies began to realize that volume creates revenue.

BANNED!

The 90’s were also the era of the supplement. Supplements were running wild. From supplements that were laced with steroids to steroid pre-cursers, speed mixes for weight loss and various proteins for weight gain to the latest supplement that had that secret ingredient (always from another country, usually in a difficult to reach area that no one had visited and backed by a guy from that country with a sweet accent). Today that secret ingredient is termed a proprietary formula if you read labels. Some ingredients were outlawed (such as ma huang) and several were banned by organizations due to knee jerk reaction (androstenedionne – (doesn’t really do much if anything) and creatine (has many positive effects and no known negative side effects)) due to public or organizational pressures. Drug testing and suspension became a common headline as noted by the even the most casual sports fan.

During the late 90’s, franchising of performance venues began to be introduced. By the early 2000’s they were beginning to gain traction as they gained support by investment capital or by word or mouth. Velocity, a big box concept was sold to many franchisees but died a death of natural causes, as the box was too big to generate the volume/revenue needed for sustainability. Parisi Speed School, an additional revenue stream of curriculum and some equipment that could added to or built into many an existing club has become very strong in the private industry. Athlete’s Performance has become a leader in the performance industry. This company was founded on the business model goal of training the top 5% of athletes in any given sport. It has grown over the past several years to a handful of franchises scattered across the Sun Belt from LA to Florida. Perform-Better, an equipment company that added an educational component with great speakers, great service and top notch content began to make huge inroads in the educational market of performance, fitness and business in the industry as Perform-Better let the market set the speaker line-up.

The business of combine’s and combine prep became very strong in the 90’s. Training the young stars of college to perform well at the NFL Combine first burst upon the scene with the performance of Mike Mamula at the NFL Combine when he sprinted, jumped, and drilled at a level of performance that scored so well he created a huge buzz. Today, the combine training concept has infiltrated the NBA, MLB and the NHL and trickled down to the high school level as athletes prepare for the opportunity to pursue their dream of scholarship at the school of their dreams.

By the 2000’s, certification became the key to additional revenue. Kettle bell certification, NASM Certification, CSCCa certification, Titleist Performance Institute, NSCA – Personal Trainer Certified, Idea, ACE, etc. had all created certifications as well as several high profile trainers. While the NSCA still felt they were the gold standard, many professionals began to question the validity of a test that had no practical aspect and an organization that was centered on the squat and power clean as the answer to many if not most (all?) training protocols.

In the 2000’s, it became apparent that salary caps, luxury taxes, scholarship reductions, and Title IX had made quality athletes a premium in any sport and keeping them healthy became a priority. Injury prevention, screening (both the NASM Body Map and the FMS – Functional Movement Screen) became a tool in which the patterns of the body could be quantified and qualified in a subjective – objective scoring system. Thus, a baseline could be found and the concept of “corrective exercise” could be introduced to the warm-up, cool-down or exercise session in order to keep the athlete healthy. The corrective exercise toolbox is still developing for all health, fitness and performance professionals. The key, knowing when to refer the client, patient or athlete to the proper professional in order to stay centered on correcting the problem rather than treating the symptom.

MTSU Game Day

In the 2000’s, a new organization came to the forefront in which high intensity circuits are the foundation of the training. As it evolved, certifications were rolled out in several areas and Crossfit became the hottest new franchise opportunity. Crossfit attracts highly motivated individuals and is executed as a group exercise concept, which makes it attractive for gyms and trainers. The tactical community is attracted as it is an intense “smoke session” that takes relatively little time. The only drawback at this point (in my opinion) is when it is done with poor technique or when technique breaks down due to a lack of fitness or endurance, either of which can lead to problems.

Finally, the era of allowing the athlete to have it all whether it was in terms of guaranteed money, no cut contracts or work hours and jobs and time off in college have created a situation in which the coaches are under pressure for performance of the team and athlete. The athlete in college and the pros (in many cases) wants to do as little as possible in terms of physical preparation. Collegiate strength and conditioning coaches are only allowed 8 hour, 8 weeks in the spring and 8 optional weeks (for the athlete) in the summer and are not allowed to punish the athlete outside that 8 hours of work. Therefore, some athletes are not prepared for the volume or intensity of the workload in a given workout. Athletic dorms were outlawed decades ago so many student athletes live off-campus and eat poorly, under sleep, under recover and try to force their body to improve in off-season. Sadly, in some cases, the athlete is caught in a situation in which the workload overloads the body to such an extent that the athlete cannot handle it and gets into a life threatening state in which some young men have even died. Was the workout too much? It was not for the other young men and was not over the course of the career of the coaches involved. Why this young person on this particular day? In my opinion, too much regulation by people in charge that do not understand, no voice by the professionals in dealing day to day with this in many/most cases (collegiate strength coaches) and mainstreaming of the intercollegiate athlete. In pro sports it just ruins the sport. Guaranteed money makes athletes lazy, selfish and bad team members.

In 2010, the United States Special Operations Command began to hire strength and condition professionals for each and every Special Forces team in order to keep the warrior athletes healthy. Looking at the professional and elite (BCS) collegiate model, they understand that with better physical training methods, quality recovery and optimal nutrition, the warrior athlete will better be able to execute his/her job and fulfill the mission. With the amount of training the SF community receives over the course of his/her career, many of these warrior athletes are truly million dollar athletes, just like our sports “heroes”.

The tools the fitness professional learns over time that when put into play can influence, recondition, train for performance or prevent injury in the population that the trainer or coach comes into contact each and every day is the key. In my opinion, it has become a time in which you study, practice and train to learn the skills needed to become a proficient coach or physical trainer in order to serve your population. Your ability to understand and lead, train and groom a business is different than the ability to lead, train and groom a staff at a university or in the Special Forces community. The tools needed (periodization, reconditioning, speed, weight loss, client recruitment, marketing, speaking, teaching, technical expertise, etc.) may be similar in many cases, but while some are sharp and shiny from use other will rust due to lack of use, as some tools are not needed in a particular arena.

Much as a professional martial artist or MMA athlete may study with a variety of teachers and coaches over their career in order to learn various skills, it is time for the coach and trainer to study and learn from a variety of professionals in order to learn skills, concepts and techniques in order to better serve the community in which he or she practices.

What is the next concept, franchise or era of performance training? I think it is just that . . . performance training. Using all the

A. Karelin World's Greatest Wrestler

tools at our disposal to train, recondition, prehab, teach and inspire our scholastic, collegiate, professional and amateur athletes to greater heights and more enduring careers.

Deadlift Tips

The deadlift is much like a squat. The weight is resting on the shoulders. (The hands attach to the arms, which attach to the shoulders!). The load is through the core, hips, legs and feet into the ground. The hips are higher in the start position of the deadlift than in the bottom position of the squat. The deadlift uses starting strength where as the squat utilizes a somewhat elastic component in coming out of the bottom, unless one is doing pause squats. Those are the major differences.

The first tip is when doing the pull from the floor one should cue/focus leading with the heart. The hips and shoulders should rise from the bottom position at the same time. Novices and tired lifters tend to lift the hips first, which puts too much load onto the lower back. When leading with the heart is the focus and coaching point, the hips will follow in the optimal sequence if the one is strong enough in the core. If core weakness is present, then the core will collapse in front and the back will round putting undue pressure onto the discs of the spine.

A related tip is to focus on pushing the feet into the floor. When the focus is lifting the weight, novice lifters will tend to dip and attempt to jerk the bar free from the ground. This “technique” will tend to collapse the core and raise the hips. If, on the other hand, the focus is to first push the hips through the floor and then lead with the heart, optimal technique as well as the lowest risk for injury can be maintained while one pulls the bar to a full upright position.

The next tip is how to address the bar. The bar should be over the toe foot junction with the feet turned out at 7-15 degrees. An over under grip is used in order to lesson the chance of a weak grip allowing the bar to drop. Pull the hips low and the shins forward in order to pull with the hips and the back. When the focus is to “bend over” in order to deadlift, the hips tend to start too high. When the focus/cue is to “pull yourself under the bar” the hips tend to be in an optimal position.

The chest should be “big” with the shoulders back and a large breath of air locked into the lungs in order to create pressure within the core in order to resist core collapse. Just like in a heavy squat, a heavy deadlift needs big intra-core pressure in order to resist core collapse and possible back injury.

Over all, the deadlift is a safer lift than the squat as the bar is in the hands and can be dropped at any time. The big risks occur when the hips rise first or the bar drifts away from the shins as the load is lifted. If this happens it is very common to feel a shift in the low back and the back will spasm with the muscles locking in order to protect the spine from injury.

Relative Intensity Concept Part Two

How heavy is heavy?  How light is light?  If I do a set of 10 or a set of 5 or a set of 2 how do I know how heavy to go on each set?  Does it matter?  Is it important?  If we assume the volume is important (sets times reps) and if we assume the load is important (percentage of weight used) then relative intensity is the key that allows us to relate the loads of various sets and workouts to each other.  If we assume that strength training occurs at about 80 percent of max in strength type power lifts (bench, squat, and deadlift), then how do I determine what 80% is at various rep schemes?  Using the chart below makes it simple.  Eighty percent at 1 rep is 80% (actually on the chart it is 79%).  Eighty percent at 2 reps is 76%.  Eighty percent at 4 reps is 70%. Eighty percent at 6 reps is 64%. Eighty percent at 8 reps is 58%.  Eighty percent at 10 reps is 52%.  All you do is find 80% (actually 79%) on the left hand side of the chart under relative intensity and move across to the right on the same row.  As you come to 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 reps across the top the number on the row is the load percentage that is the same relative intensity as 1 at 80%. This becomes an invaluable training tool as you write workouts for the strength lifts.  The reps for the Olympic lifts are so low (1 – 3  reps) that relative intensity is almost a non-factor.   In using the chart we assume that each rep equals 3 percent and each 3 percent equals 1 rep.   If you use 2.5% per rep or even 5% per rep you can devise your own chart to use while writing workouts.  I prefer to use 3% as it seems to allow for good jumps in loads without getting too big a jump as in the 5% percent loads and it still works rather well at the 10 rep range (unlike the 2.5% loads).  Here is the relative intensity chart.  Remember, to start at one side and/or the top and move your lines down and across until they intersect. Where they intersect is the load that the athlete will actually put on the bar.


Rel.

Int. reps       1             2              3              4             5               6               7             8               9             10


100 1         100           97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55

79 8            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52

76 9            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10          73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46

In order to use the chart all you do is decide what rep ranges you are going to use for the particular exercise and the relative load range in which you wish to train for the cycle.  For example if you are going to do 5 sets of 5 for 5 weeks and wish to slowly advance the load you can do the following:

Warm – up  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets #

Order           week 1                   week 2               week 3                 week 4                     week 5

Reps            5×5                        5×5                        5×5                        5×5                        5×5


*Load            67%                      70%                        73%                      76%                      79%


Rel. int.         79%                      82%                        85%                      88%                      91%

#volume is constant at 25 work reps for each workout

*load is the weight you actually load onto the bar.


The chart below will show how staying at 5’s but moving up the relative intensity chart was the stimulus for the training effect.

Rel.

Int. reps      1              2              3              4              5                6              7                8             9             10


100 1        100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85             82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82             79            76            73            70            67

91 4             91           88            85            82            79             76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76             73            70            67            64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73              70           67            64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73             70             67           64            61            58            55

79 8            79            76             73           70             67             64            61            58            55           52

76 9            76            73             70           67             64             61            58            55             52          49

73 10          73            70            67             64             61            58            55            52            49            46


Start at about 80 percent and work your way toward 90 – 95 percent of relative intensity over the course of the training cycle.  This is fairly easy to understand when the reps stay the same but what if the rep scheme is constantly changing?  Here is an example of the 10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2 scheme using the same relative intensity  for all the reps in each workout.  The relative intensity will go up from workout to workout in order to implement the overload effect.

Warm – up sets  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets

Order       Week 1                                         week 2                                  week 3                              week 4

Reps        10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2


Load%      52-58–64–70-76                55-61-67-73-79                  58-64-70-76-82                  61-67-73-79-85


Rel. int%.           79                                        82%                                       85%                                   88%

#volume is constant at 30 reps for each work set.           

Rel.

Int. reps      1            2            3            4              5             6              7               8                9                 10


100 1        100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88             85           82            79            76             73           70           67             64             61

85 6            85             82           79             76           73             70           67           64            61              58

82 7            82             79           76            73            70             67            64            61            58             55

79 8            79            76             73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52

76 9            76             73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46


Next is an example of wave training (Training & Conditioning April 2000) in order to train the athlete at the same relative loads as the reps change within the workout and over the course of the training cycle.

Warm – up sets  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets

Order                       Week 1                               Week 2                                Week 3                       Week 4

Reps            10 – 5 – 10 – 5 – 10 – 5         8 – 4 – 8 – 4 – 8 – 4         6 – 3 – 6 –3 – 6 – 3     5 – 2 – 5 – 2 – 5 – 2

Volume            45 total reps                        36 total reps                        27 total reps                        21 total reps

Load%            52-67-52-67-52-67            61-73-61-73-61-73            70-79-70-79-70-79          76-85-76-85-76-85

Rel.Int.%                  79%                                      82%                                       85%                                88%

Rel.

Int. reps      1             2             3              4               5              6              7              8              9              10


100 1       100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76             73            70            67           64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73            70            67             64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73             70            67            64            61             58            55

79 8            79              76            73            70             67          64            61            58             55            52

76 9            76              73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46

This is relative intensity.  If you are implementing strength training using rep schemes above 4 – 5 reps or in wave like training schemes in your sets, then relative intensity can provide you with the key to open the door to relate set to set and workout to workout.  Training variables can be manipulated and programs can be implemented that are streamlined in order to get the best training effect in the shortest amount of time with a corresponding reduction in the possibility of injury due to too much, too quick, or too often.

I would like to thank Bill Allerheilegan, Russ Ball, Mike Clark, Vern Gambetta, Bill Gillespie, Rick Huegli, Al Miller, Johnny Parker and Fred Roll for the ideas expressed here today.









Relative Intensity Concept – Part One

As he warmed up Thor could still feel the effects of his last squat workout.  He knew from past experience that he couldn’t go heavy again this week.  He knew that if he did push through the pain all he would gain would be poorer and tougher workouts.  That is the exact opposite of all of his training goals with the championship competition coming up in a few short months.  As he began to load the bar Thor decided that he must back off, but he still needed to train hard.  Thus the dilemma, the paradox of training.  Thor knew the max repetition for a squat workout is about 50 reps and since he just did 5 sets of 5 at 85% he decided that he would back off 15% to only 70% for today’s load.   But, since he still wanted, no needed to train with intensity, he decided on 4 sets of 10 reps. What do you think? Did Thor accomplish his goal of backing off for this particular training session?

The concept of “Relative Intensity” is an easy concept to use and one that experienced lifters come to know and appreciate with their advanced training age.  Almost everyone becomes familiar with the basic terms of lifting early on in training.  Repetitions are each movement of the bar or dumbbell.  Sets are groups of repetitions that are clustered together such as 5 sets of 5 reps. Loads or percentages are the amount of weight that is placed on the bar or used via the dumbbell.  5 sets of 5 reps at 85% of the one rep max is the same for everyone.  If my max is 100 pounds then the load on the bar is 85% of 100 or 85 pounds.  If your max is 300 then the load will be .85 multiplied by 300 or 255 pounds.  Intensity is either load or volume.  It can also be speed, but that is another topic for another day.  Volume is expressed as the number of sets multiplied by the number of reps. Therefore 5 x 5 is a volume of 25 and 4 sets of 10 reps is a volume of 40.  Relative Intensity is different.  Relative Intensity takes into consideration the relationship of the load to the volume and the volume to the load.  More is better, right?  But the whole question is more what?  Is it more sets, more reps, more load, more volume, more speed, more rest, or more what?

What relationship does volume have with load?  Is there a relationship?  Is it an important consideration in order to reach my training goals?  YES!  Olympic lifters and power lifters spend the majority of their training reps in the 1 – 3 rep range. Why?  Because their goal is max weight lifted.  Most body builders spend the majority of their training in the 5 – 10 rep range. Why?  Because their goal is to pack on the most mass possible.  How does relative intensity relate to these two diverse groups?  Relative Intensity can smooth the transition from high to low volume and can create a common language between workouts that can be easily quantified and understood.  If Thor does 5 sets of 5 at 85%, that is a relative intensity of 97%.  Just follow the highlighted lines from 5 down to 85% and over to the left to 97% on the chart.  When he “unloaded” with 4 sets of 10 at 70% what was his relative intensity?  Go down from 10 to 70% and over to the left hand side to find . . . 97% !  So, Thor “unloaded” to 70%, but when you take the volume of each set into consideration, he was actually training at the same “relative intensity” !  Is this a critical component of training?  For a competitive lifter and body builder it is absolutely critical.  It can mean the difference between health and injury, the fine line between champion and also – ran.  According to A. S. Prilepin , the optimal number of lifts at various loads for Olympic lifting athletes are:

70% loads (3 – 6 repetitions)              18 total lifts

80% loads (2 – 4 repetitions)            15 total lifts

90% loads (1 – 2 repetitions)             7 – 10 total lifts

Prilepin further feels that if the total “number of lifts in one exercise is significantly above or below the optimal, then the training effect decreases.”*  Through his research he recommends the following volume totals (sets times reps) in relation to loads:

70% loads             no less than 12 reps – no more than 24

80% loads             no less than 10 reps – no more than 20

90% loads            no less than 4 reps – no more than 10

In building workouts it is important to recognize the role of relative intensity as the sets, reps and loads are added onto the exercises.  If the rep range is great from workout to workout or week to week then relative intensity is critical to understanding the relationship of load to volume, workout to workout and week to week.  According to Alexsei Medvedyev in  “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting”,  as well as the USA Weightlifting manual Volume III “Training Program Design” regarding big lifts using the legs, the total number of reps divided by the all the percentage loads should equal 75%.  In other words, your average load in a squat, dead or clean for a month of training should be 75%.  This rule can be violated, but over the long haul for optimum performance and injury free workouts, this rule is inviolate.  This is due to the fact that we use our legs for standing, walking, running, jumping and changing direction.  On bench pressing, the average load can be skewed slightly higher (+2-4%).  In other words, the load should be a bell curve off of 75%.  From 70% – 80% about 35% of the reps should fall in this range.  With loads of 60% – 70% and 80% – 90% the volume of loads should be approximately 25% of the total volume for the month.  Below 60% load is 10% of the volume and above 90% is 5% of the volume.  What would change each month and with each year of training is an increase in the total volume of repetitions that can be executed with squats, deads, and/or cleans.

Now that we have a feel for the loads for the lifts, let’s examine the role of relative intensity.  If Thor did the 5 x 5 @ 85% workout, then his relative intensity was 97%.  That is extremely high.  Here is a good time to invoke the 10% rule.  Any time you feel the need to back down, 10% is the MINIMUM that is needed to create a recovery/compensation/super-compensation effect so that the strength that is being developed can be expressed.  In ranges above 85% relative intensity, the recovery workout should be more in the range of 15% off of the peak load.  In light of this, what load should Thor have selected for his load at 4 x 10?  Somewhere in the neighborhood of 55% – 60% of his 1 rep max needed to be loaded onto the bar.  This may seem too light, but remember, we must take into account the volume that Thor wants for today’s workout . . . 4 x 10 or 40 reps.  This is almost exactly 80% of what Thor knows from experience he can handle in a volume squat workout (remember, 50 reps total is the max number of reps in a volume squat workout, unless you want that workout to carry over into next week or even next month).

In devising your training programs, it is critical that your record your workouts.  As you begin to progress in your training age, you will begin to know and understand your limits.  If I decide to squat 5 x 8 @ 76%, what is that in relation to my 8 x 3 @ 85% workout from last week?  (It is 40 reps at a relative intensity of 97% versus 24 total reps at a relative intensity of 91%).  In light of this, maybe I would be better served to do 8 x 3 @ 82% with a R.I. of 88% followed the next week by 5 x 8 @ 58% with a R.I. of 79%.  According to Tudor O. Bompa in “Periodization of Strength”, all strength training occurs above a load of 80%.  Power training effects occur at loads of 50 – 80%.  The concept of relative intensity creates a common language that unlocks the relationship of volume to reps and reps to volume.  Incorporating this tool in building your workouts enables you to train harder, train smarter and train longer with fewer plateaus and less staleness and injury.  After all, isn’t that what it is all about? More is better.

Sources:

Baker, Gene  USA Weightlifting Coaching Manual Volume III “Training Program Design”  USA       Weightlifting  Colorado Springs, CO 1980

Bompa, Tudor O.   ‘Periodization of Strength’,  Veritas Publishing Inc.  Toronto, Ontario Canada 1993

Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs”  Human Kinetics Books

Champaign IL 1987

*Laputin, Nikolai and Oleshko, Valentin “ Managing the Training of Weightlifters” Sportivny Press

Livonia MI 1982

Medvedyev, Alexsei  “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting”  Sportivny Press  Livonia MI

1989

Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs”  Human Kinetics Books

Champaign IL 1987