Many people like to resistance train 3 days per week as a part of their lifestyle training program. I believe that 3 days per week of resistance training done in the giant set or circuit style training program which will keep your heart rate up while you are training for strength, thus accomplishing two things at once. If the Giant Set philosophy is utilized, where a push, pull, leg and sometimes core and/or total body exercise are added to the training session, strength and power can be emphasized at the same time fitness is being improved. The key is how to periodize the strength training program when not using percentages of your max.
When resistance training (using bodyweight, DB’s, KB’s, bars, etc.) and not using a one rep max to figure the percentages OR with a mixed group showing up to train that are at a variety of strength and fitness levels this system is relatively easy to implement. It does not utilize a set time per set, rather it uses the fitness of the athlete to determine the pace and tempo of the circuit. The fitness level, exercises and loads will determine the pace of the circuit for each individual. Next, the ingenious part of the formula for maximizing the strength gains for each individual without spending hours on programming.
Each day will have an emphasis based on the exercises selected and instructions imparted to the group. The heavy day will use big muscle group, heavy lift type exercises such as squat or dead lift (basically the same lift), bar bench press, pull – ups, for example. The rep scheme will be moderate such as 4-6 reps, a pyramid (8-6-4-2-4-6-8), work up/work out sets (10-8-6-4 5×5), etc. The loads will be determined by the individual as they move from the squat/deadlift to the bench to pull-ups (usually done with rubber band assistance for the weaker people and with added load or pauses on the way up and way down by the stronger people). This is the heavy day of training.
The medium day utilizes medium loads, but the time under tension for the muscle will go up. The athlete will control the tempo of the lift by pausing/holding half way up and halfway down on the movement as well as at the top/bottom of the lift. The load is medium, so posture, form and quality of the pattern should not be an issue but as always is critical. For example, the pause/hold workout will be written 3 hold bench press 5 x 5 – 4 second hold. In this workout the athlete would lower the bar halfway, hold for 4 seconds, lower to the chest, holding for 4 seconds, come ½ way up and hold for 4 seconds and then finish the rep. This will make the time under tension for each rep 12 seconds, much longer than most 1 rep max attempts. As the reps go up as in 4 x 8 hold for 3 seconds, the hold/pause time will go down. As the rep scheme prescribed goes down, the hold time will go up as in 8 x 4 hold for 6 seconds. This will also control the load the athlete puts on the bar. These giant set circuits will also be controlled by the athlete and their choice of loads. If the load is too heavy and/or the form is compromised, then the athlete will lag beyond the group and have trouble finishing.
The light day will utilize much different implements for resistance. However, the pattern and angle of the exercise will remain essentially the same. The bench press would become medicine ball bench (where the athlete will lay on their back with their legs bent and as a partner drops the ball to their chest, the athlete will catch the ball, bring it to their chest and punch it up to the ceiling), clap push-ups (done on their knees if they are not strong), tubing punches from a standing position, etc. Air squats or squat jumps will replace back squats or the dead lift and tubing pulls for speed will replace the pull-up. The pattern of movement is the same, but the stimulus will be quite different. This is the day the timer is used and the work bout is controlled by the instructor/coach. The work bouts should be no more than 20 seconds with up to 60 seconds to recover. Why such heresy? They won’t get fit you say? This is not about fitness by the work bout, it is about quality of the work bout and can the athlete recover in the time allotted to have great quality in the next work bout. As time progresses, the work bout remains 10-20 seconds and the rest can be squeezed down to 40, 30 and for short sets, even 20 seconds.
Why do such training for “normal” clients?? I believe we can all agree fast twitch fibers have been proven to respond quicker to hypertrophy training and are designed to contract quickly and with high force for short bursts of time. Slow twitch fibers respond poorly to hypertrophy training and contract with relatively low force for long periods of time. Intermediate fibers can mimic either fast or slow twitch fibers, correct? Now, just based on looks alone, which type of fibers will make you look better – slow twitch or fast twitch? Do you want to look like a muscled up, cut up sprinter or a smooth, skinny long distance athlete? Easy answer – muscled up, cut up for any of our people, whether they are athletes or soccer moms. So, if we always train at the same speed, using relatively the same loads, the fast twitch fibers never get stressed and the intermediate twitch fibers will begin to take on the characteristics of the slow twitch fibers. So, the programming, over time, will create fit people that can work for 30 – 60 seconds at a time that have fewer and fewer fast twitch acting fibers to call upon in training, performance and life.
So, to summarize, have a heavy, slow big lift day; implement a medium load day with extended pauses and holds; and have a fast explosive day with light, fast explosive exercises and reps done for short burst intervals (think Tabata style training, but with breaks if needed for fitness levels) and the emphasis is on quality, quality and quality!!
After just a month of this change in quality and emphasis of training, you will find your muscles thicker and dense (thanks to the holds and explosive reps) and your fitness and strength levels breaking through to new plateaus due to the giant sets increasing the tempo of the workout and training all the muscle fibers!!
Remember . . .
As he warmed up Thor could still feel the effects of his last squat workout. He knew from past experience that he couldn’t go heavy again this week. He knew that if he did push through the pain all he would gain would be poorer and tougher workouts. That is the exact opposite of all of his training goals with the championship competition coming up in a few short months. As he began to load the bar Thor decided that he must back off, but he still needed to train hard. Thus the dilemma, the paradox of training. Thor knew the max repetition for a squat workout is about 50 reps and since he just did 5 sets of 5 at 85% he decided that he would back off 15% to only 70% for today’s load. But, since he still wanted, no needed to train with intensity, he decided on 4 sets of 10 reps. What do you think? Did Thor accomplish his goal of backing off for this particular training session?
The concept of “Relative Intensity” is an easy concept to use and one that experienced lifters come to know and appreciate with their advanced training age. Almost everyone becomes familiar with the basic terms of lifting early on in training. Repetitions are each movement of the bar or dumbbell. Sets are groups of repetitions that are clustered together such as 5 sets of 5 reps. Loads or percentages are the amount of weight that is placed on the bar or used via the dumbbell. 5 sets of 5 reps at 85% of the one rep max is the same for everyone. If my max is 100 pounds then the load on the bar is 85% of 100 or 85 pounds. If your max is 300 then the load will be .85 multiplied by 300 or 255 pounds. Intensity is either load or volume. It can also be speed, but that is another topic for another day. Volume is expressed as the number of sets multiplied by the number of reps. Therefore 5 x 5 is a volume of 25 and 4 sets of 10 reps is a volume of 40. Relative Intensity is different. Relative Intensity takes into consideration the relationship of the load to the volume and the volume to the load. More is better, right? But the whole question is more what? Is it more sets, more reps, more load, more volume, more speed, more rest, or more what?
What relationship does volume have with load? Is there a relationship? Is it an important consideration in order to reach my training goals? YES! Olympic lifters and power lifters spend the majority of their training reps in the 1 – 3 rep range. Why? Because their goal is max weight lifted. Most body builders spend the majority of their training in the 5 – 10 rep range. Why? Because their goal is to pack on the most mass possible. How does relative intensity relate to these two diverse groups? Relative Intensity can smooth the transition from high to low volume and can create a common language between workouts that can be easily quantified and understood. If Thor does 5 sets of 5 at 85%, that is a relative intensity of 97%. Just follow the highlighted lines from 5 down to 85% and over to the left to 97% on the chart. When he “unloaded” with 4 sets of 10 at 70% what was his relative intensity? Go down from 10 to 70% and over to the left hand side to find . . . 97% ! So, Thor “unloaded” to 70%, but when you take the volume of each set into consideration, he was actually training at the same “relative intensity” ! Is this a critical component of training? For a competitive lifter and body builder it is absolutely critical. It can mean the difference between health and injury, the fine line between champion and also – ran. According to A. S. Prilepin , the optimal number of lifts at various loads for Olympic lifting athletes are:
70% loads (3 – 6 repetitions) 18 total lifts
80% loads (2 – 4 repetitions) 15 total lifts
90% loads (1 – 2 repetitions) 7 – 10 total lifts
Prilepin further feels that if the total “number of lifts in one exercise is significantly above or below the optimal, then the training effect decreases.”* Through his research he recommends the following volume totals (sets times reps) in relation to loads:
70% loads no less than 12 reps – no more than 24
80% loads no less than 10 reps – no more than 20
90% loads no less than 4 reps – no more than 10
In building workouts it is important to recognize the role of relative intensity as the sets, reps and loads are added onto the exercises. If the rep range is great from workout to workout or week to week then relative intensity is critical to understanding the relationship of load to volume, workout to workout and week to week. According to Alexsei Medvedyev in “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting”, as well as the USA Weightlifting manual Volume III “Training Program Design” regarding big lifts using the legs, the total number of reps divided by the all the percentage loads should equal 75%. In other words, your average load in a squat, dead or clean for a month of training should be 75%. This rule can be violated, but over the long haul for optimum performance and injury free workouts, this rule is inviolate. This is due to the fact that we use our legs for standing, walking, running, jumping and changing direction. On bench pressing, the average load can be skewed slightly higher (+2-4%). In other words, the load should be a bell curve off of 75%. From 70% – 80% about 35% of the reps should fall in this range. With loads of 60% – 70% and 80% – 90% the volume of loads should be approximately 25% of the total volume for the month. Below 60% load is 10% of the volume and above 90% is 5% of the volume. What would change each month and with each year of training is an increase in the total volume of repetitions that can be executed with squats, deads, and/or cleans.
Now that we have a feel for the loads for the lifts, let’s examine the role of relative intensity. If Thor did the 5 x 5 @ 85% workout, then his relative intensity was 97%. That is extremely high. Here is a good time to invoke the 10% rule. Any time you feel the need to back down, 10% is the MINIMUM that is needed to create a recovery/compensation/super-compensation effect so that the strength that is being developed can be expressed. In ranges above 85% relative intensity, the recovery workout should be more in the range of 15% off of the peak load. In light of this, what load should Thor have selected for his load at 4 x 10? Somewhere in the neighborhood of 55% – 60% of his 1 rep max needed to be loaded onto the bar. This may seem too light, but remember, we must take into account the volume that Thor wants for today’s workout . . . 4 x 10 or 40 reps. This is almost exactly 80% of what Thor knows from experience he can handle in a volume squat workout (remember, 50 reps total is the max number of reps in a volume squat workout, unless you want that workout to carry over into next week or even next month).
In devising your training programs, it is critical that your record your workouts. As you begin to progress in your training age, you will begin to know and understand your limits. If I decide to squat 5 x 8 @ 76%, what is that in relation to my 8 x 3 @ 85% workout from last week? (It is 40 reps at a relative intensity of 97% versus 24 total reps at a relative intensity of 91%). In light of this, maybe I would be better served to do 8 x 3 @ 82% with a R.I. of 88% followed the next week by 5 x 8 @ 58% with a R.I. of 79%. According to Tudor O. Bompa in “Periodization of Strength”, all strength training occurs above a load of 80%. Power training effects occur at loads of 50 – 80%. The concept of relative intensity creates a common language that unlocks the relationship of volume to reps and reps to volume. Incorporating this tool in building your workouts enables you to train harder, train smarter and train longer with fewer plateaus and less staleness and injury. After all, isn’t that what it is all about? More is better.
Baker, Gene USA Weightlifting Coaching Manual Volume III “Training Program Design” USA Weightlifting Colorado Springs, CO 1980
Bompa, Tudor O. ‘Periodization of Strength’, Veritas Publishing Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada 1993
Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs” Human Kinetics Books
Champaign IL 1987
*Laputin, Nikolai and Oleshko, Valentin “ Managing the Training of Weightlifters” Sportivny Press
Livonia MI 1982
Medvedyev, Alexsei “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting” Sportivny Press Livonia MI
Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs” Human Kinetics Books
Champaign IL 1987