Heart Rate is Heart Rate – Whether you are running your athletes, doing a circuit, riding bikes or just doing super or giant sets – as heart rate responds to the workload, fitness (work capacity) is being trained. Can you be in great shape running but not in doing agilities? Yes! Doing distance work but unable to maintain tempo in executing a giant set workout (legs, push, pull)? Yes! In post season – general physical preparation (GPP or working to work) is very acceptable. Even in very early off-season it is OK. But, with time becoming such a cherished commodity, special fitness / work capacity training focused on the energy systems of the competition is the key to elite performance preparation.
How Much Fitness is Enough? – Aerobic Base is a waste of time. Distance in virtually every sport has NO place in the preparation plan. A recovery run for soccer or basketball in the post season around campus wearing your gear to have fun and look good is great. But the other 11 months of the year distance is compromising speed and power. Building the intervals of training, be it short burst agilities or long intervals of 1:30 – 2:30 in order to train the energy system to work and recover is critical. What is the rest interval? It can be heart rate (recover to 121) OR just watch the quality of the work. The quality MUST remain high or you are doing crap reps. A competent coach would never load a bad squat pattern, so why continue to do reps when the speed, turnover and quality is less than optimal? To make them tougher. . . . ? On occasion, yes. I think that if you want tough people, recruit tough people.
Frequency and Dosage of Training – Physical preparation is like medicine. It must be the correct amount, taken in the correct timing for the optimal period of time. Training fitness and work capacity is easy. More is better in terms of volume. Less is more in terms of rest. However, what if you are training speed, acceleration and power? Then the QUALITY of the rep is the MOST important factor of training. How do I increase quality? Rest longer or break the reps up into sets. How do I rest longer when sport coaches are watching? Make the groups bigger, add planks, or insert shoulder body weight alphabets or stretching between work bouts. The athletes are “working” but are recovering the energy system and nervous system for the next rep. Muscles and fitness take more reps and fewer sets while the nervous system (speed/power) require more sets and fewer reps.
Training Effect – It takes about 6 weeks to effect a training effect that will be a long-term change in the status and abilities of the athlete. Anything less tends to be temporary. Recovery is critical to the training effect. If the athlete is not allowed to recover, the rebound effect to the training stimulus is muted and the results of training are dampened. This in turn will create less buy in as testing results will suffer. And, of course the sport coaches will not think you know your stuff if your numbers are not outstanding!
Rest – In training volume, once the volume goal is attained in terms of distance, loads, sets/reps, etc. the next step is to begin to shorten the rest bouts. In sport, it is generally not who can dothe most work in the shortest time (crossfit, cross country, distance racing) but rather who can do the highest quality work and recover in the time allotted in order to be ready to perform again at an elite level (this is also the definition of work capacity).
Running – Most sports are based on running and sprinting. The nervous system must be re-set after a heavy leg session to be elastic and dynamic in the run/sprint pattern. If the athlete is allowed to do nothing after a heavy leg session, the next days workout is compromised and over time, the athlete will begin to lose the elasticity required to run, jump, start, stop and change direction in a fluid, dynamic and explosive ability. So, run what after a heavy leg day? 6-8 x 50m, 6-8 x 100m or something in that volume range (300 – 800m). Run, walk, run walk and as the athlete loosens up, the speed will come to them and make their last one their fastest one and look like a sprinter again.
Running II – If you are working with an older population and doing interval ladder sprints (50-100-150-200) or pyramid interval sprints (50-100-150-200-150-100-50) always go from long intervals to the short interval in order to protect the calf from strains and pulls. If you want to work on speed and turnover, start short in terms of distance and go up because when you prescribe the workout this way, the athlete will maintain the faster turnover through the longer intervals. When the workout is prescribed from long to short, the athlete will tend to run rather than sprint the shorter distances.
Special Strength – Special Strength is loading an athlete so that the rep is above 90% of the best effort in terms of speed, power and quality. Hill sprints and agilities, loaded jumps, sled and parachute sprints, resisted starts. The load is usually 10% or less of body weight.
Volume – Many injuries are a result of volume. Generally, only in competition will accidental injuries occur (getting rolled up, shoved, tripped, etc.) or catastrophic non-contact injuries happen (the dreaded ACL). Training injuries are almost always volume related. Volume is training age and sexual maturation age related. A novice emerging athlete that is a late maturing child will need much less volume than a child with a training age of 3 years and is an early maturing child.
These are some of the things I have learned over the years in training athletes of all ages. I hope it helps! Robb
The following items are philosophical tenants I apply to all my training prescriptions and programs. I have found that when I keep these items at the forefront of my process of training, my athletes and clients are trained to a much higher level with less volume and fewer problems.
1. The first 5:00 minutes of the workout sets the tone for the entire session and the last 5:00 minutes of today’s workout is the start of tomorrow’s session.
2. Pattern Before Power
3. 20% of Corrective Exercises applied during the training session will tend to positively impact 80% of the problems and complaints of the athlete/client.
4. Just because you can does not mean you should.
5. The quality of the focus, effort and repetition are the key to optimal performance.
6. Body weight before external loading.
7. Build in fun and competition.
8. Speed, power, strength, core and fitness sequencing are the key to maximizing the performance training prescription.
9. After clean patterns and added volume and load – integrate time under tension, speed, unilateral loading, complex and combination patterns of training for added stimulus and improvement.
10. More is Better – more rest, more recovery, more quality and more nutrition
The first 5:00 minutes of the workout sets the tone for the entire session and the last 5:00 minutes of today’s workout is the start of tomorrow’s session. The first 5:00 minutes set the tone, tempo and focus of today’s session. Many corrective exercise strategies can be seamlessly integrated into the warm up process. The last 5:00 minutes of the workout can be focused on passive recovery and/or active regeneration techniques in order to maximize the benefits of the session as well as begin to train the athletes that warm – up and recovery are a part of every training session.
Pattern before power. If the athlete/client does not have clean movement patterns, why load them, increase their volume, add speed, etc? It makes absolutely NO sense to have the athlete continue to execute crappy reps. Good to great reps are acceptable, depending upon the athlete/client. The novice can get away with good, but not the veteran.
20% of Corrective Exercises applied during the training session will tend to positively impact 80% of the problems and complaints of the athlete/client. Most of the poor compensation/movement patterns I have encountered are from ankle immobility, hip immobility, low core instability, T-spine immobility, anterior shoulder tightness and scapula instability. Addressing these items during the warm up, cool down or the training session with a few easy to do exercises will tend to address most of the issues that people have when it comes to movement and overall muscular-skeletal health.
Just because you can doesn’t mean you should. If you can do 50 snatches in a row, should you? Why? 100 hang clean and squat presses? 100 burpees? Why? To get smoked? Ok, that makes a little sense. Very little. Are you training or are you working out? If you are working out – go ahead. If your focus is to increase work capacity – fine. But just doing it to do it or for work capacity is like running around the goal post to warm – up. It accomplishes the goal and nothing else. If you are training and you have a goal or have an issue or have a technique or pattern problem – then why do a bunch of unfocused, crappy reps? When you get tired and keep going – you most likely are doing crappy reps.
The quality of your focus, effort and repetition are the keys to optimal performance. Not only do your patterns need to be optimal but your effort needs to be intense and your focus needs to be great in order to get the most out of your training session. If your effort is average, your return on your effort will be average. If your focus is poor, generally your execution and pattern will suffer. If you are training with great effort, optimal focus and executing great reps, your return on your training will be maxed. Effort and focus can pertain to speed, power, pauses and holds as well as rounds and reps.
Body weight before external loading. If an athlete cannot execute 20 reps of air squats and push-ups properly, then why prescribe loaded squats or bench press? If they cannot execute 3 good pull-ups, why let them continue to bench press 225 and do lat pulls with 90 pounds? If an athlete cannot execute a single leg sit down squat onto a bench for 5 reps, why load them with dumbbells for lunges? Body weight before external loading.
Build in fun and competition. If it is not fun, why do it? If the person does not like to compete, why are they in performance training? If you are just working out, then you do not need to compete. If you are not going to be graded or measured in any type of physical parameter, then you do not need to compete. But it always MUST be fun, or, why do it?
Speed, power, strength, core and fitness sequencing are the key to maximizing the training prescription. Would you time a mile and then test a 40? Would you test bench press max and then test seated mediball push test? Would you smoke the core and then test a dead lift max? NO! Then why set up your training sequence so that the athlete trains in a poor order or sequence of stimulus? If they do not improve on test day, then the training program was flawed. The Russian coaches felt that if 60% PR’ed, it was a poor training cycle. If 70% Pr’ed it was an average training cycle. If 80% PR’ed then the training program was outstanding. How do your training cycles compare?
After optimal movement patterns are established and/or volume and load are added – integrate time under tension, speed, unilateral loading, complex and combination patterns of training for added stimulus and improvement. If the same workout prescription is done time after time, with similar progressions, similar loads and similar exercises – why would you ever expect different results? New stimulus must be applied and training emphasis focus must be integrated and weaved in and out of the program as speed, power, strength and fitness are all vital components for competitive athletes to improve during the off-season.
More is Better – more rest, more recovery, more quality and more nutrition. It is America and yes more is better. However, it is not always just more volume or more load. What is critical to integrate is more quality stimulus at the optimal time, more proactive recovery and better nutritional support at the times that it is critical and the body is starving for nutrients.
These are some of the tenants that I judge every one of my training programs and workouts by as I prescribe them to my athletes and clients. They have helped me over the years and I hope they are of some inspiration to you.
The keys to weight loss and muscle gain is three things. Those are proper nutrition fueling at the correct time, the burning of calories and resistance exercise. We all know some or all of those principles. Let’s look at them a little closer.
Proper nutrition – Protein First
Proper nutrition is protein first. Many people do not eat breakfast. We KNOW it is THE critical meal, but many people choose not to eat first thing in the morning. Ok, how do we overcome this for real people in the real world? Have a snack. Then have another mid-morning. This will make up for no breakfast at all. The patterns of eating fall into two general paths. Three meals and a snack or two OR two to three snacks and two meals would be the best of choices. Both of these patterns will allow for optimal fueling patterns for the body IF the proper food is chosen in terms of quality. The key is protein first. Every snack should have a minimum of 10g of protein and every meal should have 20g of protein. That is the key. Why only 20g at any given meal? The body can only metabolize and utilize about 20g at any given time. So the excess is excreted or stored. The quality of the protein is the next critical factor. Breakfast meats, many protein bars and other choices will have too many other ingredients that will overload your system in terms of sugar, fats or calories. READ THE LABELS!! If you have three snacks and two meals with the minimal optimal protein content you will ingest a minimum of 70g of protein. If you choose 3 meals and two snacks of the minimal optimal protein content you will have 80g of protein. Keep your protein levels constant throughout the day, much like when you have to take medicine 2 – 3 times per day in order to keep the levels high enough in the blood stream to create an effect! If you just keep your protein levels optimal and your sugar levels optimal throughout the day, your health will improve almost immediately in terms of how you feel, energy levels and frame of mind. Here are some common foods with calories and protein content listed.
PEANUTS, OIL ROASTED, SALTED 1 CUP 840 39
CASHEW NUTS, OIL ROASTD,SALTED 1 CUP 750 21
ALMONDS, SLIVERED 1 CUP 795 27
CHICKEN, STEWED, LIGHT + DARK 1 CUP 250 38
ICE CREAM, VANLLA, REGULR 11% 1/2 GALN 2155 38
TUNA SALAD 1 CUP 375 33
CHICKEN, CANNED, BONELESS 5 OZ 235 31
COTTAGE CHEESE,LOWFAT 2% 1 CUP 205 31
HAMBURGER, 4OZ PATTY 1 SANDWH 445 25
TURKEY, ROASTED, LIGHT MEAT 2 PCE 135 25
PORK CHOP, LOIN, BROIL,LN+FT 3.1 OZ 275 24
BEEF STEAK,SIRLOIN,BROIL,LN+FT 3 OZ 240 23
GROUND BEEF, BROILED, LEAN 3 OZ 230 20
OYSTERS, RAW 1 CUP 160 20
ENG MUFFIN, EGG, CHEESE, BACON 1 SANDWH 360 18
REFRIED BEANS, CANNED 1 CUP 295 18
When choosing to eat what we eat, this will give you a great idea on how to choose protein first.
Proper Nutrition – Portion Size
There are many little tricks to eat less. One of the best is to drink lots of water each and every day. Many times when we are hungry, we are really just thirsty. Drink a large glass of water before any meal or snack. The second trick is to make sure that the first meal or snack of the day has the optimal amount of protein. If you have carbs first then your body will want carbs first the rest of the day! Another trick is to eat a small salad first. This will tend to fill you up with less caloric dense foods. Watch the dressing choice! When you finish eating, get up and get busy with something. Don’t linger and graze as you will end up eating more as you talk and watch others eat. The last trick is when eating, just eat, do not ever eat and do something else (especially something quiet like read or watch tv!!). This is a killer for max caloric intake. Finally, order the smaller portion. Sounds easy, but it can be difficult to do. If it is not available, share one entre as this will cut the portion size for both of you!
Set your watch and have a snack or a meal every 3-4 hours. Eat when you are NOT hungry, but eat small portions with adequate protein numbers. When you workout, make SURE that you have protein and sugar available for the muscle cells and get some protein and sugar back into your body as soon as the workout is over. Try half of a bar or drink before and half after, as this will be more in line with what your body can utilize. MORE IS BETTER – but it is more often, not more quantity!
The key to adding muscle mass is resistance training. Just getting up and moving will tend to add mass to your lower body which are some of the largest and dense muscles in the body. You can choose to lift weights or just do body weight resistance training as either will tend to add muscle to your body if the volume of the training is more than you are used to and adequate nutrition is available to the cells during and immediately after the workout.
The key to resistance training is to do circuits that push you beyond your comfort zone. If you do a long run, a long bike ride, a long elliptical session you will certainly burn calorie during the session. However, AFTER the session, your body will quickly return to homeostasis and its’ resting state. If you choose to do a circuit or interval sprints then not only do you burn calories during the session, but for HOURS after the session, the body will need to repay the debt incurred during the intense training session in terms of increase heart rate, increase metabolism and increase respiration. You can actually DOUBLE the amount of calories burned in one half hour session in an intense circuit or interval workout over a steady state “distance” workout. Yes, you read correctly – DOUBLE!! The trade off is that the intensity is difficult to maintain. So, how do YOU incorporate this into your exercise program? Do a circuit 1-2 times per week and keep up your normal long, slow, mental health session. Then, after your work capacity and ability to recover gets better, then do 2-3 circuits in one week and then 1-2 sessions the next, so every month you go from 4-8 circuits up to 8-12 circuits. Now you will see big time results IF you combine it with your optimal nutrition program. Remember guys and girls, it is thong and speedo season!! Good luck!
How do you test athletes for camp? How do you hold them accountable in todays culture in which they want it all? Jobs, social life, family time, hobbies and sports all vie for their limited attention spans and quality time. Larry Smith, the head coach at Arizona, Southern Cal and Missouri first introduced this to me as my boss at USC. After spring testing, the scores are set and the goals for the fall are determined for the fall. I have used this system very successfully with men and women’s basketball, volleyball, soccer, baseball and football at the collegiate level. IF the head coach buys in, it is very easy to get athlete buy-in. I have had various head coaches put their own spin on the test so that it better reflects their culture and system. For example, in soccer, the 110’s were 1:00 minute turnovers in which after running the distance, the athletes had the balance of the minute to return to the starting line. We did not max basketball athletes in the clean at times so we did a trap bar pull off of boxes (like a dead lift but more centered with the trap bar and from a higher starting point than the floor).
I feel this system works very well as the lifters need to run and the runners need to lift. Everyone needs to be aware of their body weight and body composition. Great performance is rewarded and laziness is penalized. In case of injury, the test that is not allowed will be thrown out and the scale will reflect the change in total points possible as well as the passing score. In the spring, we encouraged our athletes to test for max effort lifts. In the summer, we counseled them to max for points. Once you max out on points – why go higher? It is time to play ball. We squatted all summer, but on Fridays we did leg circuits as well as some type of total body circuits (dumbbells, kettlebells, bar, body weight and mixed methods circuits). With camp approaching, I was not as concerned with how much weight an athlete could lift in the squat as how much work the legs could handle and recover in a short time bout and hit it again.
PRE-SEASON REPORTING POINT SYSTEM
1. BODY WEIGHT – IF YOU ARE WITHIN 2% OF YOUR GOAL WEIGHT WHEN YOU REPORT YOU GET 1 POINT.
2. BODYFAT PERCENTAGE – IF YOU ARE ON OR BELOW YOUR ASSIGNED BODYFAT PERCENTAGE YOU GET 1 POINT.
3. STRENGTH TESTS – IF YOU ACHIEVE YOUR STRENGTH GOALS YOU WILL GET 3 POINTS. IF YOU ARE 5 POUNDS ABOVE YOUR GOAL YOU WILL GET 4 POINTS, 10 POUNDS ABOVE YOUR GOAL YOU RECEIVE 5 POINTS. IF YOU ARE 5 – 10 POUNDS BELOW YOU ONLY GET 2 POINTS, 15 – 20 POUNDS BELOW IS 1 POINT.
PTS. POWER CLEAN BENCH PRESS *LEG CIRCUIT
5 +10 POUNDS +10 POUNDS 5 SETS IN 90 SEC.
4 +5 POUNDS +5 POUNDS 4 SETS IN 90 SEC.
3 GOAL WEIGHT GOAL WEIGHT 3 SETS IN 90 SEC.
2 -5 POUNDS -5 POUNDS 2 SETS IN 90 SEC.
1 -15 POUNDS -15 POUNDS 1 SET IN 90 SEC.
*YOU WILL BE EXPECTED TO PASS ALL 5 LEG CIRCUITS IN 90 SECONDS W/2:00 REST!
4. CONDITIONING TEST – 16 TIMES MODIFIED 110 TEST IN 15 SECONDS. LINEMEN RUN 90 YARDS; QB, LB, TE, FB, K, RUN 100 YARDS; SKILL RUN 110 YARDS. EVERYONE FINISHES @ GOAL LINE IN 15 SECONDS WITH 45 SECONDS RECOVERY TIME.
5. YOU GET A FREE POINT IF YOU HAVE NO MISSES FOR THE ENTIRE SPRING. IN HIGH SCHOOL YOU COULD REWARD SUMMER TRAINING. IN COLLEGE, SUMMER REWARDS AND/OR PUNISHMENT IS FORBIDDEN.
YOU MUST SCORE 23 POINTS OUT OF A POSSIBLE 33.
THAT IS A SCORE OF 70% IN ORDER TO PASS.
IF YOU FAIL TO PASS, EACH POINT YOU FAIL BY WILL BE AN EXTRA DAY OF RUNNING AFTER PRACTICE.
FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU SCORE 20 POINTS YOU WILL RUN EXTRA THE FIRST 3 DAYS AFTER PRACTICE.
THE HIGH POINT ATHLETE WILL RECEIVE THE BEST CONDITIONED ATHLETE AWARD ! !
I hope this sparks you to create your own system of testing prior to camp. Over the course of almost 15 years of collegiate coaching after I was taught this system, it worked for us. Good luck! Robb