Strength

Come Down Sets – Leg Press Til You Puke

130315-Z-SM234-001Come Down Sets

This is a fun way to do a bench or maybe a deadlift workout. I would NOT recommend it for a squat workout due to the technique failure.

Work up to 92.5% – 95% of your max.

As soon as you hit your last rep – the clock starts. You have 35 seconds to drop 20 pounds and do 5 reps. If you don’t do 5, the clock starts again as you drop another 20 pounds and try again. Keep dropping 20 pounds and trying every 35 seconds until you successfully do 5 reps. As soon as you do 5 reps – hit the floor and do push ups.  Whoever does the most push ups wins.

 

Leg Press Til You Puke –legpress2

Work up to 92.5% – 95% of your max.
Rest 1:00 and drop 10% of the load on the leg press and go to failure.
Rest 1:00 and drop 10% again and go to failure.
Rest 1:00 and drop 10% again and go to failure.
Rest 1:00 and drop 10% again and go to failure.
Rest 1:00 and drop 10% again and go to failure.

Rest 1:00 and do a wall sit at 90 degrees squeezing a mediball between your legs and holding a 10 or 25 pound plate like a steering wheel. Your partner that was unloading the weight will push the plate down, up, right and left for a 2 second count each way. The person the goes the longest on the wall wins.

WOD’s

crossfit.eastside.dynamax.rotational.drillWOD Circuit 1 Dakota Meyer
MB Scoop Toss
Feet Up Push Up
MB Chest Pass (off floor)
Pull Up
Tubing Speed Pulls Horizontal
Kb Swings
Long Jumps
DB Push Up + 2 Rows
2:00 Cardio (Row-Run-Bike-Etc)
Recover for 2:00
All Reps are 10
Do 3 – 4 Rounds

WOD Circuit #2 Paul Ray Smith
Plate Chops Rt/Lft
Plate Overhead Lunges Rt/LFt
Plate Squat Jumps
Plate Sit Ups
DB Hang Snatch
DB Push – Up + 2 Rows
1 DB Turkish Get – Up Rt/Lft
MB Push – Ups
MB Slams
MB Twist Toss Rt/Lft
Pull – Ups
1x150m
Reps are all 10
Rest is 2:30
Do 1 – 2 Rounds

Robb Rogers M.Ed., CSCS, MSCC

Robb Rogers M.Ed., CSCS, MSCC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WOD Circuit #3 Michael A. Monsoor
TRX Push – Ups
TRX Pull – Ups
TRX Saws
TRX Curl Unders
KB Swings
KB Cln+ Sqt+Prs Rt/Lft
KB Turkish Get Up Rt/Lft
MB Scoop Toss
MB Twist Toss RT/Lft
MB Slams
Glute Ham
Row 500m
Rest 2:30
All Reps 10
Do 3-4 Rounds

Recovery Circuit

Dilemma – You want to work out, but you need to recover. You need to train to feel good about your self but you know you are needing recovery. What to do . . . . ? Do a recovery circuit. Build in stretching, foam rolling, easy cardio creating a circuit that will prepare you for tomorrows session of intense training. What would this look like? Check out the sample below:

10 Kg Plate Squat      10 Reps

Row 2:00 Hard

Squat and Alternate Reaches      10 Reps 5/5

Foam Roll Glutes      10 Reps 5/5

Glute Ham      10 Reps

Jacobs Ladder 2:00 Fast

Alternate Mountain Climber Medicine Ball Stretch      10 Reps 5/5

Foam Roll IT Band      10 Reps 5/5

Rotational Push Ups      10 Reps 5/5

Airdyne 2:00 Hard

Foam Roll Quads      10 Reps 5/5

Pretzel Stretch      10 Reps 5/5

TRX Incline Pull Ups      10 Reps

Run 2:00

Foam Roll Figure 4 Rotations 10 Reps      5/5

Stick Drill for Shoulders 10 Reps      5/5

This type of workout is very beneficial to your body recovering. It is actually better than rest alone!! Next time you need a break, try this workout out and I bet you feel better and train with more quality at your next session.

 

Robb

The RDL vs. the Stiff or Straight Leg Dead Lift: Same or Different Lifts?

Many people interchange the usage of the RDL and the SLDL. Is this accurate? In a word, no. Let’s examine the lifts and their heritage. The RDL comes from Russia or Romania (depending on who you ask what the R stands for) and the SLDL comes from the bodybuilding world.

The RDL is meant to simulate the top of the second pull in the clean and the snatch. The RDL is a heavy version of the kettlebell swing. The RDL SHOULD be executed down to the top of the knees with a moderate tempo and up with a quick, explosive movement, much like the kettlebell swing. The feet stay on the ground as the hips drive the bar up to the high pocket position. Remember, it is a partial movement lift prescribed to assist the second pull in the clean and snatch.

The SLDL is designed to load the glutes and hams throughout the entire ROM of the backside chain. The knees MUST be UNLOCKED in order to load the muscles and tendons and NOT the ligaments and discs.  Executed from the ground or on a small box depending on the flexibility of the hamstrings. Proper form is to shift the weight back loading the heels while hinging at the hip. The lumbar spine should NOT flex, the core should stay braced throughout the entire movement. The grip should be shoulder width and the tempo should be controlled.

So, in essence, the two lifts come from different heritages and are designed for two different reasons, impacting vastly different neural patterns. While using the same musculature, the ROM, loads and tempo of movement should be very different in execution.

If you want a nice butt and hams, do both lifts. If you want a bigger, faster, better clean or snatch, focus on the RDL.

Robb

NO NO NO – Legs too straight!!                                                Single leg version of the SLDL                                                       Traditional Version of the SLDL


How Do I Estimate My MAX?

One of the most accurate ways to estimate your max at any given time is to do indicator sets. An indicator set is a heavy load where you will do 2 – 5 reps and cannot do another. The reason you do less than 6 is at six reps, due to time under tension, the energy systems begin to switch from ATP-PC to the lactate system and the variability is greater.

After you do your heavy indicator set for as many as possible for 2 – 5 reps, just use some simple math. Take the total number of reps and subtract one. Multiply what is left by 3%. Then multiply this number by the load used in the heavy indicator set. Add this number back to the load used in the set. For example:

5 reps at 225
5 – 1 = 4
4 x 3% = 12%
.12 x 225 = 27

27 = 225 = 252

So – the estimated max in this case would be 252 or 250 – 255

This works very well and can give you an idea of where you are in your strength development during training without having to prepare to max or max.

What if I want to know what my max is on a lift in which I do not max? This is quite common, as many lifts are not tested, but an athlete wants to cycle this lift. Here are the percentages for a couple of lifts to train percentages off of without having to max on those lifts.

Incline is 80% of bench press

Snatch is 70% of the Clean

Squat is 80% of the Dead Lift

These are excellent rules of thumb to use in order to train with percentages without having to test several different lifts.

Robb Rogers

Maxing on the Pull – Up

Marine doing pull ups

Many programs do not max on the pull – up or any type of pulling exercise other than the clean dead lift. However, if the shoulder is not developed fully and equally, then the front side musculature tends to dominate and anterior dislocations and/or posterior labrum injuries can occur. Maxing on the pull – up can be somewhat controversial as is the athlete allowed to kip and if so, how much? Are they required to pause at the bottom? Is the grip over or under hand? How wide is the grip? In my experience, the grip is overhand and slightly wider than shoulder grip or analogous to the bench press grip. Now, for the key concept that makes the pull – up work as a part of the max testing battery for the athlete.

Just as in estimating a max in any lift, the formula will apply. The formula is as follows:

Max reps – 1 (multiplied by .03) = X. Then, (X is multiplied by the body weight of the athlete + any additional load such as a weight vest or plates hung off of a belt) = Y. Y is the amount of load represented by each rep above one executed by the athlete. Y is then added back to the body weight of the athlete.

For example:

A 200 pound athlete does 4 reps in the pull – up test. 4 – 3 = 3. 3 x .03 = 9%. .09 x 200 equals 18. 200 + 18 equals 218. Round up and the max is 220.

 

This max should be near the bench press max. If it is more than 10% off, then more emphasis should be placed on the pulling exercises.

Top Ten Things I Apply to my Training Programs

Letterman

The following items are philosophical tenants I apply to all my training prescriptions and programs. I have found that when I keep these items at the forefront of my process of training, my athletes and clients are trained to a much higher level with less volume and fewer problems.
1. The first 5:00 minutes of the workout sets the tone for the entire session and the last 5:00 minutes of today’s workout is the start of tomorrow’s session.
2. Pattern Before Power
3. 20% of Corrective Exercises applied during the training session will tend to positively impact 80% of the problems and complaints of the athlete/client.
4. Just because you can does not mean you should.
5. The quality of the focus, effort and repetition are the key to optimal performance.
6. Body weight before external loading.
7. Build in fun and competition.
8. Speed, power, strength, core and fitness sequencing are the key to maximizing the performance training prescription.
9. After clean patterns and added volume and load – integrate time under tension, speed, unilateral loading, complex and combination patterns of training for added stimulus and improvement.
10. More is Better – more rest, more recovery, more quality and more nutrition
The first 5:00 minutes of the workout sets the tone for the entire session and the last 5:00 minutes of today’s workout is the start of tomorrow’s session. The first 5:00 minutes set the tone, tempo and focus of today’s session. Many corrective exercise strategies can be seamlessly integrated into the warm up process. The last 5:00 minutes of the workout can be focused on passive recovery and/or active regeneration techniques in order to maximize the benefits of the session as well as begin to train the athletes that warm – up and recovery are a part of every training session.
Pattern before power. If the athlete/client does not have clean movement patterns, why load them, increase their volume, add speed, etc? It makes absolutely NO sense to have the athlete continue to execute crappy reps. Good to great reps are acceptable, depending upon the athlete/client. The novice can get away with good, but not the veteran.
20% of Corrective Exercises applied during the training session will tend to positively impact 80% of the problems and complaints of the athlete/client. Most of the poor compensation/movement patterns I have encountered are from ankle immobility, hip immobility, low core instability, T-spine immobility, anterior shoulder tightness and scapula instability. Addressing these items during the warm up, cool down or the training session with a few easy to do exercises will tend to address most of the issues that people have when it comes to movement and overall muscular-skeletal health.
Just because you can doesn’t mean you should. If you can do 50 snatches in a row, should you? Why? 100 hang clean and squat presses? 100 burpees? Why? To get smoked? Ok, that makes a little sense. Very little. Are you training or are you working out? If you are working out – go ahead. If your focus is to increase work capacity – fine. But just doing it to do it or for work capacity is like running around the goal post to warm – up. It accomplishes the goal and nothing else. If you are training and you have a goal or have an issue or have a technique or pattern problem – then why do a bunch of unfocused, crappy reps? When you get tired and keep going – you most likely are doing crappy reps.
The quality of your focus, effort and repetition are the keys to optimal performance. Not only do your patterns need to be optimal but your effort needs to be intense and your focus needs to be great in order to get the most out of your training session. If your effort is average, your return on your effort will be average. If your focus is poor, generally your execution and pattern will suffer. If you are training with great effort, optimal focus and executing great reps, your return on your training will be maxed. Effort and focus can pertain to speed, power, pauses and holds as well as rounds and reps.
Body weight before external loading. If an athlete cannot execute 20 reps of air squats and push-ups properly, then why prescribe loaded squats or bench press? If they cannot execute 3 good pull-ups, why let them continue to bench press 225 and do lat pulls with 90 pounds? If an athlete cannot execute a single leg sit down squat onto a bench for 5 reps, why load them with dumbbells for lunges? Body weight before external loading.
Build in fun and competition. If it is not fun, why do it? If the person does not like to compete, why are they in performance training? If you are just working out, then you do not need to compete. If you are not going to be graded or measured in any type of physical parameter, then you do not need to compete. But it always MUST be fun, or, why do it?
Speed, power, strength, core and fitness sequencing are the key to maximizing the training prescription. Would you time a mile and then test a 40? Would you test bench press max and then test seated mediball push test? Would you smoke the core and then test a dead lift max? NO! Then why set up your training sequence so that the athlete trains in a poor order or sequence of stimulus? If they do not improve on test day, then the training program was flawed. The Russian coaches felt that if 60% PR’ed, it was a poor training cycle. If 70% Pr’ed it was an average training cycle. If 80% PR’ed then the training program was outstanding. How do your training cycles compare?
After optimal movement patterns are established and/or volume and load are added – integrate time under tension, speed, unilateral loading, complex and combination patterns of training for added stimulus and improvement. If the same workout prescription is done time after time, with similar progressions, similar loads and similar exercises – why would you ever expect different results? New stimulus must be applied and training emphasis focus must be integrated and weaved in and out of the program as speed, power, strength and fitness are all vital components for competitive athletes to improve during the off-season.
More is Better – more rest, more recovery, more quality and more nutrition. It is America and yes more is better. However, it is not always just more volume or more load. What is critical to integrate is more quality stimulus at the optimal time, more proactive recovery and better nutritional support at the times that it is critical and the body is starving for nutrients.

These are some of the tenants that I judge every one of my training programs and workouts by as I prescribe them to my athletes and clients. They have helped me over the years and I hope they are of some inspiration to you.

Tips For Teaching the Hang Clean

The clean should be taught from the top down. The human mind can only focus on one cue at a time when learning new skills. I prefer to keep it simple in order for the athlete to internalize the cues quickly and remember them easily. When teaching any ground based skill it is critical to teach the base of support/stance first.

The stance
The stance can be taught several ways. Have the athlete jump up 3 times and land in a quarter squat on the third jump. Have the athlete assume their high bar squat stance. Have the athlete place their heels under the hips and externally rotate the feet out at 7-15 degrees. External rotation of the feet is important any time the athlete has load through the spine. Being able to squat with the feet straight ahead is a function of hip external rotation mobility. Squatting with the feet straight ahead with load is an excellent way to cause back strain and injury. Back to teaching the clean stance. This stance is the basic athletic stance for jumping and landing.

Posture
The knees are flexed with the kneecaps even with the toes. The torso is upright at this time. The abs are braced, the shoulder blades are retracted and the wrists are turned straight down OR the elbows are turned out. Why are these the cues and why are they important? The knees are flexed so that they are in a position to jump, but will not move/flex in the slide of the bar down the legs. The abs are braced in order to protect the lumbar spine and transfer force. The shoulder blades are retracted in order to better transfer the power from the legs and hips through the shoulders to better move the load on the bar with speed. The wrists turned down/straight OR the elbows are turned out in order to create an upright row path of the bar in order to keep the bar close to the center of mass, a much stronger position to impart force.

Teaching the Hang Clean

When the athlete understands and can execute the stance and the posture, the hang clean techniques can be introduced. The first is to hinge at the hip and execute a bend over. The body weight should stay centered on the foot with the load being full footed but NEVER “on the toes”! The body weight can be SLIGHTLY forward on the forefoot (I will grab the athlete and let them feel their weight centered on the foot, back on the heel and forward on the forefoot by having them lock their body and rocking them back and forth so they can understand how slight the change is in their center that can change the entire movement). I have them bend over, bend over and then jump. We will execute this movement several times. Then the athlete will execute an upright row, putting the “hands in the armpits” with a grip so that the hands are outside the edge of the legs. The elbows will be high and wide. This can be done with body weight, a dowel rod or a bar. Next I will have them put it together so that they will say OUT LOUD “Feet”, “Knees”, “Chest”, “Wrist” in order to set up and then they ONLY NEED TO DO 2 MOVEMENTS – ONE AT A TIME! The movements are “Bend Over” and “Jump” and the jump should be HIGH! The bar should remain close, go to the mid-chest area and the elbows should be high and wide. The jump will cause the athlete to leave the ground, but the stance upon returning to the ground should be the normal clean stance, which is also the normal squat stance.

The RackThe rack is a rack – NOT A CATCH! Many times people will “catch” the bar, and it will land on them with a thud on the shoulder, which is very uncomfortable for young athletes or very lean athletes, both of which have very little muscle mass on the upper shoulders. The key to the rack is to keep pressure on the bar at all times. The pull converts to a push as the bar passes the upright row phase into the rack onto the shoulders. This in turn allows the athlete to rack the bar at a position in which the load is absorbed at the highest level of the front squat. If the rack is smooth, the load will be absorbed by the legs and hips; with the torso being stabilized and braced for protection. When the load is heavy, the rack will be accomplished with a low front squat where if the load is light, the rack will be in a high front squat position. In other words, the load will determine the depth of the squat on the catch.

Flaws, Problems and Corrections –
Weight misplaced in the base of support – Too far forward and the athlete will have to jump to the bar, lean back on the rack or reverse curl the load up to the rack position. Too far back and the bar will hit the belt or belly on the way up or there will be no power transferred into the bar.
No Shrug – The shrug is a key component of the high pull and the last bit of force imparted to the bar on the upward path before the pull force changes to the push force of the rack.
Lazy Elbows – The elbow quite often gets lazy and the bar will begin to drift away from the center or torso, requiring the athlete to again reverse curl the bar or lean back on the rack.
Rounded upper back or lazy shoulder blade retraction – This results in a portion of the power generated in the hips and legs being lost in the upper back as the torso flexes and the taps stretch, absorbing force that should be transferred into the bar. If the flex continues down the torso into the lumbar spine, injury can occur and could be quite serious.
Soft Core – Many times a beginner will not maintain a braced core, and the body will look as if it is flexing through the torso as the lift is executed. This flex is wave like in appearance and is due to the abs not being braced. While not too dangerous in terms of injury (unless it is excessive or the load is great), the resultant lack of transfer of force will seriously limit the ability of the athlete to generate force into the bar and move the weight with speed.
Landing in a wide stance after the pull/jump – this denotes a lack of leg strength in the ability of the athlete to squat with load. This is remedied by prescribing more squatting activities.

Teaching Drills –

Slide shrug or high pull


Slide, Slide and Shrug, Slide and Hang Clean – This drill is just like it sounds. First, slide the bar down to the hang and then up; Second, slide the bar down to the hang and then up with a shrug; Third, Slide the bar down to a hang and then clean it.
Hang Clean and Front Squat – Again, Just like is sounds. Do a normal hang clean and follow it up with a squat – or multiples of both the squat and/or the clean. If they are weak in the squat, do 1-2 Hang Cleans and 2-5 Front Squats.
Slide, Pause and Hang Clean – This is for starting strength. A normal hang clean is elastic (think rubber band/ball – elastic). Do a normal slide and then hold the hang position for up to 5 seconds before executing the hang clean. This will train the athlete to have excellent form, great back side chain strength in the hang position and good explosion out of the hang or athletic position.

Implements
Bar – the traditional implement for use in the hang clean.
Dumbbells – ok to use but will change the elbow position and foster a lazy elbow, which is a common error.
Kettlebells – a somewhat “new” implement for hang cleans and this does mimic the general hang clean pattern that a bar requires for optimal execution.
Ground based trainers – such as a bar type implement that is anchored on one end (think land mine set-up). This is ok in general, but can restrict the ability of the bar to move naturally in the “S” shape if the anchor point does not rotate in a 360 degree ROM but it does enforce good mechanics.

Summary – The hang clean is the usual starting place for learning the clean from the floor, blocks and with other implements. Once the hang clean is mastered, it is relatively easy to introduce the clean from below the knees and then the clean from the floor. The hang snatch is super easy to learn when the hang clean becomes natural as the hang snatch is really even easier to learn.
Robb

Relative Intensity Concept Part Two

How heavy is heavy?  How light is light?  If I do a set of 10 or a set of 5 or a set of 2 how do I know how heavy to go on each set?  Does it matter?  Is it important?  If we assume the volume is important (sets times reps) and if we assume the load is important (percentage of weight used) then relative intensity is the key that allows us to relate the loads of various sets and workouts to each other.  If we assume that strength training occurs at about 80 percent of max in strength type power lifts (bench, squat, and deadlift), then how do I determine what 80% is at various rep schemes?  Using the chart below makes it simple.  Eighty percent at 1 rep is 80% (actually on the chart it is 79%).  Eighty percent at 2 reps is 76%.  Eighty percent at 4 reps is 70%. Eighty percent at 6 reps is 64%. Eighty percent at 8 reps is 58%.  Eighty percent at 10 reps is 52%.  All you do is find 80% (actually 79%) on the left hand side of the chart under relative intensity and move across to the right on the same row.  As you come to 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 reps across the top the number on the row is the load percentage that is the same relative intensity as 1 at 80%. This becomes an invaluable training tool as you write workouts for the strength lifts.  The reps for the Olympic lifts are so low (1 – 3  reps) that relative intensity is almost a non-factor.   In using the chart we assume that each rep equals 3 percent and each 3 percent equals 1 rep.   If you use 2.5% per rep or even 5% per rep you can devise your own chart to use while writing workouts.  I prefer to use 3% as it seems to allow for good jumps in loads without getting too big a jump as in the 5% percent loads and it still works rather well at the 10 rep range (unlike the 2.5% loads).  Here is the relative intensity chart.  Remember, to start at one side and/or the top and move your lines down and across until they intersect. Where they intersect is the load that the athlete will actually put on the bar.


Rel.

Int. reps       1             2              3              4             5               6               7             8               9             10


100 1         100           97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55

79 8            79            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52

76 9            76            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10          73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46

In order to use the chart all you do is decide what rep ranges you are going to use for the particular exercise and the relative load range in which you wish to train for the cycle.  For example if you are going to do 5 sets of 5 for 5 weeks and wish to slowly advance the load you can do the following:

Warm – up  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets #

Order           week 1                   week 2               week 3                 week 4                     week 5

Reps            5×5                        5×5                        5×5                        5×5                        5×5


*Load            67%                      70%                        73%                      76%                      79%


Rel. int.         79%                      82%                        85%                      88%                      91%

#volume is constant at 25 work reps for each workout

*load is the weight you actually load onto the bar.


The chart below will show how staying at 5’s but moving up the relative intensity chart was the stimulus for the training effect.

Rel.

Int. reps      1              2              3              4              5                6              7                8             9             10


100 1        100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85             82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82             79            76            73            70            67

91 4             91           88            85            82            79             76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76             73            70            67            64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73              70           67            64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73             70             67           64            61            58            55

79 8            79            76             73           70             67             64            61            58            55           52

76 9            76            73             70           67             64             61            58            55             52          49

73 10          73            70            67             64             61            58            55            52            49            46


Start at about 80 percent and work your way toward 90 – 95 percent of relative intensity over the course of the training cycle.  This is fairly easy to understand when the reps stay the same but what if the rep scheme is constantly changing?  Here is an example of the 10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2 scheme using the same relative intensity  for all the reps in each workout.  The relative intensity will go up from workout to workout in order to implement the overload effect.

Warm – up sets  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets

Order       Week 1                                         week 2                                  week 3                              week 4

Reps        10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2                10 – 8 – 6 – 4 – 2


Load%      52-58–64–70-76                55-61-67-73-79                  58-64-70-76-82                  61-67-73-79-85


Rel. int%.           79                                        82%                                       85%                                   88%

#volume is constant at 30 reps for each work set.           

Rel.

Int. reps      1            2            3            4              5             6              7               8                9                 10


100 1        100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88             85           82            79            76             73           70           67             64             61

85 6            85             82           79             76           73             70           67           64            61              58

82 7            82             79           76            73            70             67            64            61            58             55

79 8            79            76             73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52

76 9            76             73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46


Next is an example of wave training (Training & Conditioning April 2000) in order to train the athlete at the same relative loads as the reps change within the workout and over the course of the training cycle.

Warm – up sets  – first set at 50% and then work up by 6 – 9% per set until you reach the work sets.

Work sets

Order                       Week 1                               Week 2                                Week 3                       Week 4

Reps            10 – 5 – 10 – 5 – 10 – 5         8 – 4 – 8 – 4 – 8 – 4         6 – 3 – 6 –3 – 6 – 3     5 – 2 – 5 – 2 – 5 – 2

Volume            45 total reps                        36 total reps                        27 total reps                        21 total reps

Load%            52-67-52-67-52-67            61-73-61-73-61-73            70-79-70-79-70-79          76-85-76-85-76-85

Rel.Int.%                  79%                                      82%                                       85%                                88%

Rel.

Int. reps      1             2             3              4               5              6              7              8              9              10


100 1       100            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73

97 2            97            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70

94 3            94            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67

91 4            91            88            85            82            79            76            73            70            67            64

88 5            88            85            82            79            76             73            70            67           64            61

85 6            85            82            79            76            73            70            67             64            61            58

82 7            82            79            76            73             70            67            64            61             58            55

79 8            79              76            73            70             67          64            61            58             55            52

76 9            76              73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49

73 10            73            70            67            64            61            58            55            52            49            46

This is relative intensity.  If you are implementing strength training using rep schemes above 4 – 5 reps or in wave like training schemes in your sets, then relative intensity can provide you with the key to open the door to relate set to set and workout to workout.  Training variables can be manipulated and programs can be implemented that are streamlined in order to get the best training effect in the shortest amount of time with a corresponding reduction in the possibility of injury due to too much, too quick, or too often.

I would like to thank Bill Allerheilegan, Russ Ball, Mike Clark, Vern Gambetta, Bill Gillespie, Rick Huegli, Al Miller, Johnny Parker and Fred Roll for the ideas expressed here today.









Relative Intensity Concept – Part One

As he warmed up Thor could still feel the effects of his last squat workout.  He knew from past experience that he couldn’t go heavy again this week.  He knew that if he did push through the pain all he would gain would be poorer and tougher workouts.  That is the exact opposite of all of his training goals with the championship competition coming up in a few short months.  As he began to load the bar Thor decided that he must back off, but he still needed to train hard.  Thus the dilemma, the paradox of training.  Thor knew the max repetition for a squat workout is about 50 reps and since he just did 5 sets of 5 at 85% he decided that he would back off 15% to only 70% for today’s load.   But, since he still wanted, no needed to train with intensity, he decided on 4 sets of 10 reps. What do you think? Did Thor accomplish his goal of backing off for this particular training session?

The concept of “Relative Intensity” is an easy concept to use and one that experienced lifters come to know and appreciate with their advanced training age.  Almost everyone becomes familiar with the basic terms of lifting early on in training.  Repetitions are each movement of the bar or dumbbell.  Sets are groups of repetitions that are clustered together such as 5 sets of 5 reps. Loads or percentages are the amount of weight that is placed on the bar or used via the dumbbell.  5 sets of 5 reps at 85% of the one rep max is the same for everyone.  If my max is 100 pounds then the load on the bar is 85% of 100 or 85 pounds.  If your max is 300 then the load will be .85 multiplied by 300 or 255 pounds.  Intensity is either load or volume.  It can also be speed, but that is another topic for another day.  Volume is expressed as the number of sets multiplied by the number of reps. Therefore 5 x 5 is a volume of 25 and 4 sets of 10 reps is a volume of 40.  Relative Intensity is different.  Relative Intensity takes into consideration the relationship of the load to the volume and the volume to the load.  More is better, right?  But the whole question is more what?  Is it more sets, more reps, more load, more volume, more speed, more rest, or more what?

What relationship does volume have with load?  Is there a relationship?  Is it an important consideration in order to reach my training goals?  YES!  Olympic lifters and power lifters spend the majority of their training reps in the 1 – 3 rep range. Why?  Because their goal is max weight lifted.  Most body builders spend the majority of their training in the 5 – 10 rep range. Why?  Because their goal is to pack on the most mass possible.  How does relative intensity relate to these two diverse groups?  Relative Intensity can smooth the transition from high to low volume and can create a common language between workouts that can be easily quantified and understood.  If Thor does 5 sets of 5 at 85%, that is a relative intensity of 97%.  Just follow the highlighted lines from 5 down to 85% and over to the left to 97% on the chart.  When he “unloaded” with 4 sets of 10 at 70% what was his relative intensity?  Go down from 10 to 70% and over to the left hand side to find . . . 97% !  So, Thor “unloaded” to 70%, but when you take the volume of each set into consideration, he was actually training at the same “relative intensity” !  Is this a critical component of training?  For a competitive lifter and body builder it is absolutely critical.  It can mean the difference between health and injury, the fine line between champion and also – ran.  According to A. S. Prilepin , the optimal number of lifts at various loads for Olympic lifting athletes are:

70% loads (3 – 6 repetitions)              18 total lifts

80% loads (2 – 4 repetitions)            15 total lifts

90% loads (1 – 2 repetitions)             7 – 10 total lifts

Prilepin further feels that if the total “number of lifts in one exercise is significantly above or below the optimal, then the training effect decreases.”*  Through his research he recommends the following volume totals (sets times reps) in relation to loads:

70% loads             no less than 12 reps – no more than 24

80% loads             no less than 10 reps – no more than 20

90% loads            no less than 4 reps – no more than 10

In building workouts it is important to recognize the role of relative intensity as the sets, reps and loads are added onto the exercises.  If the rep range is great from workout to workout or week to week then relative intensity is critical to understanding the relationship of load to volume, workout to workout and week to week.  According to Alexsei Medvedyev in  “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting”,  as well as the USA Weightlifting manual Volume III “Training Program Design” regarding big lifts using the legs, the total number of reps divided by the all the percentage loads should equal 75%.  In other words, your average load in a squat, dead or clean for a month of training should be 75%.  This rule can be violated, but over the long haul for optimum performance and injury free workouts, this rule is inviolate.  This is due to the fact that we use our legs for standing, walking, running, jumping and changing direction.  On bench pressing, the average load can be skewed slightly higher (+2-4%).  In other words, the load should be a bell curve off of 75%.  From 70% – 80% about 35% of the reps should fall in this range.  With loads of 60% – 70% and 80% – 90% the volume of loads should be approximately 25% of the total volume for the month.  Below 60% load is 10% of the volume and above 90% is 5% of the volume.  What would change each month and with each year of training is an increase in the total volume of repetitions that can be executed with squats, deads, and/or cleans.

Now that we have a feel for the loads for the lifts, let’s examine the role of relative intensity.  If Thor did the 5 x 5 @ 85% workout, then his relative intensity was 97%.  That is extremely high.  Here is a good time to invoke the 10% rule.  Any time you feel the need to back down, 10% is the MINIMUM that is needed to create a recovery/compensation/super-compensation effect so that the strength that is being developed can be expressed.  In ranges above 85% relative intensity, the recovery workout should be more in the range of 15% off of the peak load.  In light of this, what load should Thor have selected for his load at 4 x 10?  Somewhere in the neighborhood of 55% – 60% of his 1 rep max needed to be loaded onto the bar.  This may seem too light, but remember, we must take into account the volume that Thor wants for today’s workout . . . 4 x 10 or 40 reps.  This is almost exactly 80% of what Thor knows from experience he can handle in a volume squat workout (remember, 50 reps total is the max number of reps in a volume squat workout, unless you want that workout to carry over into next week or even next month).

In devising your training programs, it is critical that your record your workouts.  As you begin to progress in your training age, you will begin to know and understand your limits.  If I decide to squat 5 x 8 @ 76%, what is that in relation to my 8 x 3 @ 85% workout from last week?  (It is 40 reps at a relative intensity of 97% versus 24 total reps at a relative intensity of 91%).  In light of this, maybe I would be better served to do 8 x 3 @ 82% with a R.I. of 88% followed the next week by 5 x 8 @ 58% with a R.I. of 79%.  According to Tudor O. Bompa in “Periodization of Strength”, all strength training occurs above a load of 80%.  Power training effects occur at loads of 50 – 80%.  The concept of relative intensity creates a common language that unlocks the relationship of volume to reps and reps to volume.  Incorporating this tool in building your workouts enables you to train harder, train smarter and train longer with fewer plateaus and less staleness and injury.  After all, isn’t that what it is all about? More is better.

Sources:

Baker, Gene  USA Weightlifting Coaching Manual Volume III “Training Program Design”  USA       Weightlifting  Colorado Springs, CO 1980

Bompa, Tudor O.   ‘Periodization of Strength’,  Veritas Publishing Inc.  Toronto, Ontario Canada 1993

Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs”  Human Kinetics Books

Champaign IL 1987

*Laputin, Nikolai and Oleshko, Valentin “ Managing the Training of Weightlifters” Sportivny Press

Livonia MI 1982

Medvedyev, Alexsei  “A System of Multi-Year Training in Weightlifting”  Sportivny Press  Livonia MI

1989

Fleck, Steven and Kraemer, William “Designing Resistance Training Programs”  Human Kinetics Books

Champaign IL 1987