Many performance professionals include track type drills as a part of a dynamic warm-up. Drills such as skips, butt kicks, shuffles, carioca and back pedal are a staple of many dynamic warm – up programs. But, why do we do those drills for performance athletes and performance clients? Riding a bike, jogging on a treadmill and calisthenics are all good options for raising core temperature, increasing heart rate and upping the respiration rate, which are the goal of a good warm-up.
Most performance athletes and performance clients compete or are very active in ground based endeavors such as sports or exercise classes or have hobbies and/or jobs that involve moving with speed and efficiency. Most of the drills we use in dynamic warm-up patterns are repeat opportunities for first step and get away step mechanics practice. If done with focus, technical proficiency and power, the athlete can repeatedly practice the posture, mechanics, arm drive and core stability needed in order to become a better athlete in terms of moving with efficiency.
The drills and what they are doing follow:
Skips – Single and double leg skips are repeat first step mechanics for linear movement. Knee punch action with a toe-up casted ankle are critical for proper force to be imparted into the ground which will in turn drive the body forward. If the glute is engaged on the back side as the foot makes ground contact, the body will be propelled linearly and cover ground. If not, the ground reaction forces of the foot contact will cause the body to move vertically as much as linearly. Common errors include no force into the ground (this is huge), poor casted ankle/foot drop, collapsed posture, poor arm action.
Butt Kicks – Single and double leg butt kicks are to reinforce the cyclic action of sprinting. When sprinting, the heel will almost brush the buttocks as the ankle crosses above the opposite knee. When running, the ankle will cross at the opposite knee. When jogging, the ankle will cross below the opposite knee. If the athlete has a casted ankle with the toe-up, then the butt kicks will be springy upon ground contact. Most athletes will let the ankle drop and allow the foot to “reach” for the ground as contact is made. This will add to ground contact time and is a major difference between running and sprinting. Posture should be tall with a braced core, good arm action and hips over the toes. Common errors include flat-footed ground contact, poor arm action, excessive knee lift with the butt kick and too much forward lean and/or flex at the hips.
Slide Kicks – Double Leg slide kicks are excellent for training transition from starting acceleration to absolute speed in sprinting. This occurs for most team sport athletes beginning at the 10-20 yard mark. With a toe-up casted ankle, the athlete stands tall and begins to jack hammer the foot up and down above the ankle. Quickly the amplitude of movement will increase as the foot/ankle will go up to the opposite knee and jackhammer to the ground. The athlete will begin to lean at the hips and the jackhammer force will begin to propel the athlete linearly. As the lean increases, the amount of ground covered between each step will increase as the force the athlete imparts on ground contact will propel the body forward. The jackhammer action does not change as the speed increases. Common errors include dropped foot for contact (no casted toe-up ankle), collapsed posture, obvious change of gears from acceleration to a run rather than acceleration into a sprint, poor arm action and flat–footed ground contact.
Cycle Kicks – Single and double leg cycle kicks are the most technically difficult to learn to execute and usually takes 4-6 weeks of mastering the other three linear drills before this drill is incorporated into the dynamic warm-up. Cycle kicks are a combination of the other three drills and are a mimicking of the sprint cycle action. The difference is that this action is done in warm-up and is fast in execution but does not impart the force that is used in acceleration and sprinting. Focus on tall hips, braced core, heel-up, toe-up, arm action can all be the focus of this drill which creates a slightly different exercise on each rep as the focus is changed. Common errors include uneven leg cycles, poor high ankle recovery and collapsed posture.
Lateral Drills –
Pull Shuffle – Pull shuffle is what we normally think of as a shuffle drill. The front leg is pulling the body forward. This is what is used in basketball defense as the athlete shadows an offensive player that is a comfortable distance away. Common errors include too much external rotation of the legs, over striding with the front side pull leg,
Push Shuffle – The push shuffle is much more violent and explosive as the back leg will impart great force into the ground in order to move the body laterally. Knee punch, toe-up casted ankle technical emphasis is reinforced. The knee of the push leg will be ahead of the toe in order to impart force on the push. Again, think of the basketball athlete on defense, but this time the offensive player is very close and the defender is attempting to beat the offensive player to a spot in order to redirect his movement. Common errors include too much external rotation of the legs, pulling with the front side leg rather than pushing with the back side leg and being too outside dominant (usually due to too much double leg squatting) thus being bow legged with the knee outside the foot rather than on the inside edge of the foot for the push-off.
Lateral Skip – Is a repeat action of the first step in push shuffle in order to cut off an opponent. Keeping the shoulders and chest perpendicular to the acceleration direction as the arms drive from front to back. The lateral movement occurs from the backside leg putting force into the ground. The front side leg will cover the ground in relation to the force imparted by the back leg. As in any acceleration drill the front side leg should have a knee-up/toe-up focus with the foot contacting the ground under the hips. In other words, don’t overreach or overt stride with the front side leg and attempt to pull the hips forward. Common errors are no backside knee punch, poor rhythm, over striding with the front side foot and bad arm mechanics.
Carioca – The carioca drill is an opportunity to repeat the first step mechanics for the crossover step. High knee action across to the opposite hip with the little toe up focus to keep the knee ahead of the toe for good acceleration mechanics is critical for optimal acceleration mechanics. The back side arm action must be with a 90 degree flexed elbow in a front to back action rather than crossing the mid-line in order to prevent the shoulders from rotating toward the direction of acceleration, thus creating unwanted motion during this repeat drill. The rotation should occur below the hip while the torso above the hip is relatively perpendicular to the direction of acceleration. Common errors include poor casted ankle/foot drop, low knee recovery, poor landmark placement of backside knee-punch, poor arm mechanics and collapsed posture.
Crossover Run – the Crossover run is the front side/back leg of the carioca drill repeated. It is imperative for the backside elbow to drive back and not cross the mid-line in order to prevent torso rotation. The backside knee should punch up and across the hips aiming for the front side hip. The little toe should be the focus and in a toe-up position. This allows the knee punch to be optimally in front of the foot in order to impart force back into the ground in a backward vector. The shoulders should stay perpendicularly square to the direction of acceleration. The downward knee punch and rearward elbow punch should be equally forceful in order to create maximal acceleration in reaction to the ground contact force.
Crossover Skip – The crossover skip is usually easier to learn than the crossover run for most people. This is more of a pattern drill than an acceleration drill in order for athletes to become comfortable with the rhythm of the crossover pattern. It is a drill to introduce in the progression in order to make the coordination of the crossover run easier for the athlete to internalize. The focus is on the rhythm of the drill first, followed by cueing the knee punch, arm action and finally the little toe up mechanics. Since a skip is slower than a run, it is easier for the athlete to be aware of the movements and techniques needed to optimize the pattern. Common errors include not skipping or skipping with only one leg.
Back Pedal – The back pedal is to teach stopping mechanics for change of direction. Hip, knee and ankle flexion as well as posture is critical in order to prevent the collapse and possible internal rotation that occurs all too often as athletes attempt to absorb force. Many time this poor force absorption pattern results in an ACL rupture. The key points of cueing are chest over knees, knees over toes. The feet should be forward and the arms should be driven backward forcefully at the elbow. The posture should mimic as if the athlete were doing a good morning or in other words the tall, braced core, flat back attitude should be apparent.
Backward Run – The backward run is prescribed to emphasize and create awareness of backside mechanics. Explosive elbow drive, heel – up and reach, posture and ground contact point are all similar, but much more critical to locomotion when attempting to go fast backwards. In order to execute this drill, it is much easier to start with a back pedal and as the speed increases, instruct the athlete to get tall, hammer the elbows back and get the heels up and reach. Instruct the athlete to lean in the direction of acceleration with the hips tall and great posture as top end speed is attained. Common errors include leaning away from the direction going (which results in a lot of work and very little locomotion), low heel recovery, poor arm mechanics, poor posture and externally rotated feet.
Backward Skip – the backward skip is a drill that is prescribed in order to allow the athlete to feel the heel brush off of the buttocks. Optimal posture is easier to attain, arm mechanics are slower and can be emphasized and foot contact is much easier to correct. The common error is a lack of rhythm for the movement pattern.
Backward Butt Kicks – This drill will correct a lack of heel brush off of the buttocks. Long-term joggers and bigger athletes such as offensive linemen in football will benefit greatly from this drill. The emphasis on backside heel to buttocks brush will pay dividends for these athletes as high speed, absolute sprinting will show mechanical improvement with high ankle recovery which in turn allows for stride length optimization as well as better ground force production due to the corresponding optimal knee punch.
External Rotation of the Legs – This is usually due to too much double leg squatting or leg pressing and a corresponding dominance of the outside sling or outer, lateral areas of the hips and legs which create tighter TFL, IT band and vastus lateralus causing the external rotation expressed in the lower leg and foot contact mechanics. In order to correct this the addition of single leg exercises such as Bulgarian (also known as pitcher squats), multi-direction lunges and multi-direction single leg squats are critical. Especially useful to correct this is the lateral lunge or squat and the scorpion lunge or squat. Additionally, the lateral leg musculature needs to be lengthened and/or released via stretching, massage and/or application of vibration.
Rhythm/Drill Mechanics (walk before run) – Just as in learning any new skill, it is best to execute it walking before trotting, jogging before running and running before sprinting. The addition of the skip application of the drill allows more explosive forces to be applied but at a slower tempo of movement allowing for corrections to be cued and internalized before sprinting is attempted.
Posture (Strength/awareness/age & maturity) – Posture is more complex as there are a variety of issues that could contribute to a collapsed posture. The easiest correction is just due to a lack of awareness. Creating focus via a verbal cue many times is all it takes to correct this problem. Tight hip flexor complex is also a reason for collapsed core as the front side core above the hip will flex on the hip opposite the knee punch as a reaction to the tight hip flexors on the straight leg side. Poor front side low core strength and stability will also contribute to postural collapse as the upper core attempts to assist in the lifting of the heavy lower limb during acceleration mechanics and the corresponding drills. Many times the growth spurt experienced by emerging athletes will exacerbate this problem as the rapid lever lengthening will make stability strength much more difficult to master and/or maintain in these drills. At full speed/absolute speed the athlete should be tall, chest over the hips, hips over ground contact point and be “planed out” like a boat on water. In other words, the athlete should be sprinting up on top of the ground/track/field/court for a short distance. This is not sport speed but speed development and is different than the speed that is used in sport competition.
Poor Arm Drive – This is usually due to lack of awareness and/or front side shoulder tightness. Front side anterior deltoid and pec stretching will allow for additional ROM. To create greater awareness, add a very light weight (1-2 lbs) to the hands of the athlete or place an ankle band from the webbing between the thumb and forefinger to the elbow which will not allow arm straightening during the hammer back phase of the arm drive. Arm drive should be from “cheek to cheek” or shoulder height in front with the hands and almost shoulder height in back with the elbow.
Foot Drop or Poor Casted Ankle – Have the athlete rub the toes up on the top of the shoes. Have them march in place with a casted ankle. Why is this so critical? When the foot drops and “reaches” for the ground, the ground contact time is increased and the tendons are not loaded as much as the muscles are loaded. When the mucles are loaded, the athlete is running. When the tendons are loaded, the athlete is sprinting. That is why conditioning is concerned with volume and sprinting/speed development is concerned with quality.
These drills will assist the client/athlete to improve first step and get away step quickness if done with focus, effort and intensity. Impulse into the ground, posture, mechanics and being engaged mentally will greatly increase the quality of the efforts which will increase the abilities of the client/athlete, if done with consistency.
There has been great controversy over the past several years about the position of the spine (specifically the low back) as it relates to optimal performance and long term health. Is the Lordotic spine healthy? It seems to function quite nicely for a great many athletes. What about the Kyphotic spine? This back position seems to produce the greatest amount of symptoms and problems. But what about the concept of “neutral” spine, how do we define it, what is it? Is it braced, drawn in, tail tucked, flat back bowed, arched or what? How do we attain it? Why are we so worried about it? What happens if I don’t have it? How do I get it? Where do I find it? Who invented it?
Let’s look at some definitions.
Another way to look at this concept is the tilt of the pelvis. In lordosis, the pelvis is rotated forward or anteriorly. In kyphosis, the pelvis is rotated posteriorly. In neutral, the pelvis is aligned. In examining this concept as a performance practitioner rather than a researcher, athletic trainer or physical therapist has led me to some conclusions. First of all is the pelvic position and the corresponding lumbar spine position resulting in some type of symptom manifesting itself in terms of pain, discomfort, tightness or inhibition of performance. If so, then I will prescribe some corrective exercises, stretching, foam rolling in order to address the inhibited performance due to pain, discomfort and tightness. I will also refer this person to an athletic trainer for further evaluation. If there is no pain, discomfort, tightness or inhibited performance, then why fix it if it ain’t broke? Most sprinter, hurdler, jumper, power, speed athletes will have a lordotic lower spine. If they are asymptomatic and pass the intrinsic muscle tests for the pelvic floor and lower core region – then train. The kyphotic person may need some remedial work, regardless of symptom level if you plan on loading the spine with squats, cleans, deadlifts or other types or resistance exercises that place load through the core. According to Dr. Stuart McGill, one of North Americas leading experts on the spine and its ability to withstand load a flat lumbar spine will tend to exhibit symptoms or problems much more often under load stress than a lordotic spine. Extension work for the kyphotic spine will be prescribed in order to enhance the lumbar area’s ability to withstand load.
My concern is the ruckus over the “neutral” spine concept and its application to performance training. After listening to many experts argue over the efficacy of this concept (it reminds me of the back side of the “drawing in” controversy), reading about this in the various publications concerned with performance and health exercise information as well as coaching thousands of athletes performing literally millions of repetitions over the past 25+ years I have come to the conclude the following observations. In a nutshell, the “neutral” spine is a manufactured and artificial position for the lumbar region. The term I feel much more comfortable with is the “natural” spine position. Here is a practical application of the difference. Have the client/athlete reach overhead until they feel skinny. At this point, have them take a big, deep breath and lock it in as if you were going to punch them in the stomach. While maintaining this core-lumbar position, drop the arms, exhale and drop into a basic athletic position. This is a natural spine position that is ready to absorb and produce force throughout the core region. In order to convince the skeptic, have the client/athlete produce a lordotic lumbar spine while in basic athletic position and then press down on their shoulders much in the manner of a resistance squat load. Repeat this drill with a kyphotic lumbar spine and ask the client/athlete, “ which is better to absorb and produce force?”. Then, if the client/athlete or colleague is still not convinced, ask them to assume the “neutral” spine position and repeat the drill a final time. The asymptomatic, “neutral” spine is a manufactured position that is unable to be replicated during the duress of performance. It also goes against the concept of maintaining pillar core integrity in order to transmit the power generated from the legs into the shoulders, arms, hands or implement with very little flexion, extension or rotation in the lumbar spine, until the mobility of the hips and thoracic region have been exhausted.
Dr. McGill explained this concept to me at a seminar in which in a one on one conversation I had asked him why I was being instructed at a performance center to teach the tail tucked position in training performance individuals. His first response was “I would have no idea”. When he laughed and said he would expound upon his point, I knew he was teasing me and asked him to please continue. He asked me if I would humor him in a little experiment. I said “sure”. He then instructed me to assume an athletic position, “tuck my tail” and then react to his instruction for the next 30 or so seconds. At this time he commanded me to “jump, do a squat thrust, shuffle right, shuffle left, do a quarter turn right, do a quarter turn left, squat, buzz my feet, lunge right, lunge left and get back into position”. At this point, he asked me what had happened to my lumbar postural position. I responded that I had no idea. He stated that was his point – that artificial/manufactured core positions are not practical to teach for performance athletes that are asymptomatic. In rehab settings in which specific symptoms or deficiencies are being addressed then artificial spine positions are certainly a part of the rehabilitation protocol. The natural lumbar spine position with core integrity to withstand force in multiple planes as well as transmit force in a variety of angles while still maintaining the ability to respire (without holding your breath) is a huge piece of performance that allow us as coaches and trainers to unlock the power of the legs and hips and express that power in our sports. This “natural” spine position combined with hip mobility, the skill of disassociation of the hip – shoulder complex and internal coordination resulting in huge force summation creates the physical performances we all long to enhance with our expertise.
Many times it is very difficult to determine what level of load to use as you begin to resistance train. I believe you must have the athlete/client demonstrate a certain level of skill with body weight as the resistance before moving on to external resistance loading. This may be something as basic as the 20 rep rule where the person must be able to do 20 quality reps of a movement before adding external loading. Being able to demonstrate twenty quality reps of the squat, push – up, lunge, step – up, back raise or glute ham and the pull – up are good base lines to use. As long as the patterns are clean and the movements are controlled and stable it is now acceptable to add resistance once the baseline threshold has been met or exceeded. Where do we begin? Below are some suggested loads to use for some of the exercises and movements we commonly prescribe in resistance training. There are no set or rep guidelines, those are up to you. Remember, the chart below is an example of a continuum that can be implemented with respect to the abilities of the athlete/client. The determination of the sets and reps will move the difficulty up and down the continuum of training. For example, 3 x 10 will be much more difficult than 3 x 5 at the same relative load due to the simple math of 30 reps (3 x 10) is much greater than 15 reps (3 x 5).
Exercise Untrained Novice Intermediate Advanced Athletic
Squats Bodyweight(20 reps) 35% of BW 65% of BW 100% of BW 125% of BW
Increment Change – 10%
Dead Lift Bodyweight(20 reps) 35% of BW 65% of BW 100% of BW 125% of BW
Increment Change – 10%
Leg Press 50% of BW 75% of BW 100% of BW 125% of BW 150% of BW
Increment Change – 15%
1 Leg Press 25% of BW 50% of BW 65% o BW 80% of BW 95% of BW
Increment Change of 10%
Step – Up Body weight (20) 10% of BW 25% of BW 40% of BW 55% of BW
Increment Change – 5 % of Body weight
Lunge Body weight (20) 10% of BW 25% of BW 40% of BW 55% of BW
Increment Change – 5% of Body weight
Jump Squat Body weight (20) 2.5% of BW 5% of BW 7.5% of BW 10% of BW
For Power Increment Change – 2.5%
Jump Squat Body weight (20) 5% of BW 10% of BW 15% of BW 20% of BW
For Strength Increment Change – 5%
Exercise Untrained Novice Intermediate Advanced Athletic
Stiff Leg Dead Lift 20% of BW 40% of BW 60% of BW 80% of BW 100% of BW
Increment Change 5% of BW
RDL 10% of BW 30% of BW 50% of BW 70% of BW 90% of BW
Increment of Change 5% of BW
UPPER BODY “PUSH” EXERCISES
Exercise Untrained Novice Intermediate Advanced Athletic
Bench Press Push – Ups (20) 25% of BW 50% of BW 75% of BW 100% of BW
Increment Change 5%
Incline Press 20 Feet Up Push – Ups 20% of BW 40% of BW 60% of BW 80% of BW
Increment Change 5%
Behind Neck Prs 5% of BW 15% of BW 35% of BW 50% of BW 65% of BW
Increment Change 2.5 – 5%
DB Bench Push – Ups (20) 15% of BW 30% of BW 45% of BW 60% of BW
Wt in each hand Increment Change 2.5 – 5%
DB Incline 20 Feet Up Push – Ups 10% of BW 20% of BW 30% of BW 40% of BW
Wt in each hand Increment Change 2.5 – 5%
DB Shlder Prs 5% of BW 10% of BW 17.5% of BW 25% of BW 32.5% of BW
Wt in each hand Increment Change 2.5%
UPPER BODY “PULL” EXERCISES
Exercise Untrained Novice Intermediate Advanced Athletic
Pull – Ups Assisted 50% of BW Assisted 25% Bodyweight (5) Bodyweight (15) Bodyweight +5%
Increment Change Assisted 10 – 15% Reps +5 per set Weight 2.5% or Pause ea. ¼ rep
Pulldowns 25% of BW 40% of BW 60% of BW 80% of BW 100%+ of BW
Increment Change 5
1 Arm DB Rows 10% of BW 17.5% of BW 25% of BW 32.50 % of BW 40% of BW
Increment Change 5%
Individuals will vary greatly from exercise to exercise based on maturity, injury history and training age. This is a guide to determine a starting point for the individual. If the individual is overweight, then the load may be set up as a percentage of Fat Free Body Weight. A functional screen, movement assessment, flexibility test and strength evaluation will assist greatly in determining the actual abilities of the client, athlete or patient.
In my experience of training athletes the need for a progression of individual agility/mobility drills as well as a generalized load progression is very apparent. Garrett Giemont was the first individual that enlightened me to the concept of agility drill progressions. Mike Arthur and Bryan Bailey of the University of Nebraska also helped shaped my thoughts as they felt that agility/mobility drill for sport are nothing more than multi-directional plyometrics. Melding these concepts with the experience of observing literally thousands of athletes executing millions of reps have created the following progression examples.
Level 1: Linear Movement requiring various forms of locomotion.
Shuffle into a run carioca into a run backpedal into a run
Butt kick into a run crossover run into a run backward skip into a run
Slide kick into a run Lateral skip into a run backward butt kick into a run
Cycle kick into a run shuffle skip into a run
All of these movements require coordination and varying levels of impulse into the ground. However, depending upon the distance of the run and the violence of the transition to sprinting, these drills are relatively safe to prescribe to an athlete early in the preparation process.
Level 2: Speed Angles 1 – Drills requiring a change of direction of less than (or more than, depending on your orientation) 90 degrees requiring various forms of locomotion (such as crossover runs, carioca runs, sprint – shuffle – backpedal runs, etc.).
Circle drills “W” Drill “L” Drill
Level 3: Speed Angles 2 – Agility drills requiring a change of direction of more than 90 degrees, but less than 180 degrees (down & back shuttle type drills), while utilizing various forms of locomotion.
“T” Drills “V” or Triangle Drills and Square Drills
Level 4: Speed Angles 3 – Shuttle type drills that are down and back in nature on the same path that also utilize various forms of locomotion.
5 – 10 – 5 Short shuttle suicide/jingle-jangles and Sprint/Backpedal Drills
The load of these drills must be figured much as you weight strength training exercises.
The total volume is figured as sets and reps and will suffice in order to quantify how much work is done from a volume standpoint. Generally, most drills are shorter in nature, generally in the 5 – 10 yard range of acceleration before the athlete must decelerate, change direction and re-accelerate. Depending on the number of legs there are in the drill combined with the number of trips per leg will generate the distance load.
For example, if I prescribe a square or box drill and the athlete will be required to run 4 legs with each leg being 7 yards in length, the entire drill will be 28 yards per repetition. If the athlete executes 6 reps at this particular station, then the volume load for this drill is 6 reps and the distance load is 168 yards. Some rules of thumb I gathered over the years of assigning agility training sets and reps for athletes and teams concerning yardage are as follows:
Sets Reps Volume Yardage
Level 1 2 – 4 2 – 4 4 – 16 160 – 640
Level 2 3 – 5 3 – 5 9 – 25 360 – 1000
Level 3 4 – 6 4 – 6 16 – 36 640 – 1440
When developing the training session for the day, the work load for the week and the program for the month I found it better to begin with a large number of lower level drills and very few if any of the more stressful level drills. At the beginning of the training session the athletes will be less fit, experience more soreness and be more prone to injury and subsequent loss of preparation time. As the athletes progressed in response to the demands of training, the stress of the load in both volume and intensity levels of the drills would be increased.
As always, you must determine the ability of your population to handle the load prescribed. The above chart is for collegiate and professional athletes. For high school or middle school athletes, the total loads will be less in volume, probably 30-50% less.
Another factor to consider is what type of coaching is gong on during and after the drill for each athlete. Are they being coached on movement mechanics, posture, footwork and angles of attack or is most of the coaching “c’mon, get after it boy, you’re moving like molasses” type of instruction.
Remember to keep in mind the overall effect of the training load for each week and month. Sprints, plyometrics, speed development, strength training, and medicine ball drills all need to be factored into the equation of the training prescription. In and of itself each training parameter may look like just enough. However, when examined with the overall program in mind, it is easy to over load the athlete with too much cumulative training stress. Combine training with too little focus on recovery/regeneration and the injury bug will soon rear its’ head in the form of shin splints, low back problems, impingements, illness and the various forms of the itis’s.
Welcome to CoachRobbRogers.com.
I began coaching in high school with elementary age mighty mite football players. In college I was not athletic enough to play ball, so I coached summer swim team, high school football, YMCA soccer and began my strength and conditioning career in the fall of 1980 as a student coach at Missouri State University. Since that time I have coached just about every population from emerging elementary athletes to All-Americans, seasoned All –Pros and Olympians in virtually every venue and sport in the performance industry. From fitness and weight loss to performance with high school, college and professional teams, as well as private industry and into the tactical realm with fire/rescue, SWAT and military Special Forces personnel, my career has afforded me a unique, varied and rich professional experience.
The purpose of this venue is to serve you, the professional of the performance industry. When starting a career, people tend to be on fire with passion and eager to show the world what they can do. As people become seasoned with experience, they begin to understand it is about what the team can do. After years in a field, the people that are still thriving begin to understand that it is time to help others achieve their goals. My goal is to provide my experience and expertise via the internet platform as a classroom for you, the performance professional.
Please join me for the journey as we continue to explore the nuances of performance training, a science that is applied as an art to a variety of students with a plethora of goals, experiences, needs and wants.
Robb Rogers M.Ed., MSCC, CSCS